The renaissance analzye the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the italian renaissance


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Plombieres

  • Plombieres

  • Unification

    • Sardinia wins taking Northern Italy
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi

    • The Red Shirts liberated southern Italy and Sicily
  • The Boot

    • Garibaldi agreed to let his conquests be absorbed by King Victor Emmanuel II who had supported him
  • Venice

    • Italy helps Prussia with Austrians
  • Rome

    • France pulled it’s troops because of war with Prussia


AUSTRIAN EMPIRE

  • The Hungarians and Czechs demanded self-government

  • Ausgleich

    • Creation of a Dual Monarchy (Austria-Hungary)
    • Hungary had self-government but loyal to Franz Jospeh
  • Language

    • German was a problem since only 25% of the empire was German
  • Anti-Semitism



GREAT BRITAIN

  • Political re-alignment

    • Tory Party becomes Conservative Party
    • Whig Party becomes Liberal Party
  • Benjamin Disraeli (Conservative)

    • Aggressive Foreign Policy (Big England)
    • Expansion of British Empire
    • Reform Bill of 1867
      • Expanded Reform Bill of 1832
      • More equitable representation
      • Industrial cities gained seats from rural areas (rotten boroughs)
      • Right to vote for men over 21
      • Doubled the number of voters
    • Reduced government regulation of trade unions


William Gladstone (Liberal)

  • William Gladstone (Liberal)

    • Irish Home Rule
    • Opposed imperialism
    • Abolished taxes supporting Anglican Church for Catholics
    • Australian Ballot (secret)
    • Civil Service Reform
  • Fabian Society

  • Parliament Act of 1911

    • Liberal Party
    • Eliminated powers of the House of Lords
    • House of Commons center of power


Social Welfare State prior to WW I

  • Social Welfare State prior to WW I

    • Right of unions to strike
    • Workers Compensation
    • Unemployment insurance
    • Old-Age pensions
    • Compulsory school attendance
    • Tax increase on the wealthy to pay for social welfare state
  • Representation of People Act (1918)

    • Suffrage for Women over age 30
    • World War I


THE EASTERN QUESTION

  • Balkans

  • Ottomans “Sick Man of Europe”

  • Austrians, Russians and Serbians

  • Powder Keg of Europe

  • Pan-Slavism



RUSSIA

  • Alexander II

    • Believed serfdom held back Russia’s modernization
    • 90% of Russians worked in agriculture
    • Serfs could be bought and sold
    • Serfs could be conscripted into the military
  • Emancipation Act (1861)

    • Abolished serfdom
    • Lived in mirs
  • Mirs

    • Regulated communes
    • Collective ownerships delayed agricultural improvments
  • Zemstvos

    • Assemblies that administrated local areas


Count S. Y. Witte

  • Count S. Y. Witte

    • Oversaw Russian industrialization
    • Steel and Oil
    • Industrialization stimulated by RR construction
    • Trans-Siberian RR
    • Industrialization led to industrial suburbs
  • Alexander III

    • Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Russification
    • Encouraged anti-Semitism (Pogroms)
  • Zionism

    • Theodore Herzl
    • Jewish homeland in the Holy Lands


WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE



BRITAIN

  • Wanted better divorce laws

  • Women’s suffrage to improve exploitation and abuse

  • Millicent Garrett Fawcett demanded female suffrage

  • Emmeline Pankhurst was militant suffragette destroying RR stations, works of art and store windows

  • Hunger strikes

  • Representation of the People Act (1918)

  • Reform Act of 1928

    • Suffrage for WOMEN over 21, yea baby


SCANDINAVIA

  • First grant Women’s Suffrage

    • Finland 1906
    • Norway 1913


IMPERIALISM



CAUSES



CHINA, JAPAN & EGYPT



NEW IMPERIALISM



CRITICS



WORLD WAR I



CAUSES



WESTERN FRONT



EASTERN FRONT



MOBILIZATION FOR TOTAL WAR



FOURTEEN POINTS



REVOLUTIONS IN GERMANY AND AUSTRIA



PEACE SETTLEMENTS



RUSSIAN REVOLUTION



1905



WORLD WAR I



FEBRUARY REVOLUTION



OCTOBER REVOLUTION



TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK



RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR



WOMEN



RESULTS



INTERWAR YEARS



MODERN PHILOSOPHY

  • Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900):

    • a. One of the most important critics of the rationalism of the Enlightenment
    • b. In Thus Spake Zarathustra (1883-85), he blasted religion and famously claimed "God is Dead"
    • · Claimed Christianity embodied a “slave morality,” which glorified weakness, envy, and mediocrity.
    • · Individualism had been quashed by society.
    • c. In Will to Power (1888) he wrote that only the creativity of a few supermen—übermenschen—could successfully reorder the world.
    • d. Though not widely read by his contemporaries, his writings seemed relevant in the atmosphere of post-World War I pessimism


Existentialism took root in Continental countries after World War II.

  • Existentialism took root in Continental countries after World War II.

    • a. In the wake of the horrors of World War II and the advent of the atomic age, pessimism and hopelessness were expressed by existentialists.
    • b. Existentialists saw life as absurd, with no inherent meaning.
    • c. Viewed a world where the individual had to find his own meaning
    • d. Most existentialists were atheists
    • e. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980): Wrote that life had no meaning and that humans simply exist
      • · He was strongly attracted to communism


f. Albert Camus (1913-1960)

  • f. Albert Camus (1913-1960)

    • · Individuals had to find meaning to life by taking action against those things with which they disagree.
    • · Ones actions are derived from personal choices that are independent from religion or political ideology.
  • g. Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers were also prominent existentialists.



FREUD

  • Freudian psychology was first developed in the late 1880s by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

    • a. Traditional psychology assumed a single, unified conscious mind processed sensory experiences in a rational and logical way.
    • b. Freudian psychology seemed to reflect the spirit of the early 20th century, with its emphasis on humans as greedy irrational creatures.
    • c. Became an international movement by 1910 and received popular attention after 1918, especially in Protestant countries of Northern Europe and the U.S.


d. Freud asserted that because the human unconscious (ID) is driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires, humans are therefore NOT rational! The ID battles the Ego & Superego

  • d. Freud asserted that because the human unconscious (ID) is driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires, humans are therefore NOT rational! The ID battles the Ego & Superego

    • · Ego: Rationalizing conscious mediates what a person can do.
    • · Superego: Ingrained moral values specify what a person should do.
    • · Shattered the enlightenment view of rationality and progress.


e. Freud agreed with Nietzsche that mechanisms of rational thinking and traditional morals values can be too strong on the human psyche

  • e. Freud agreed with Nietzsche that mechanisms of rational thinking and traditional morals values can be too strong on the human psyche

    • · They can repress sexual desires too effectively, crippling individuals and entire peoples with guilt and neurotic fears
    • · Many opponents and some enthusiasts interpreted Freud as saying that the first requirement for mental health is an uninhibited sex life
    • · After WWI, the popular interpretation of Freud reflected and encouraged growing sexual experimentation, particularly among middleclass women.


MODERN ART



WEIMAR REPUBLIC



RISE OF HITLER



GREAT BRITAIN



GREAT DEPRESSION



SPANISH CIVIL WAR



TOTALITARIANISM



SOVIET UNION



LENIN



STALIN



LIFE IN THE SOVIET UNION



ITALY



MUSSOLINI



LIFE IN FASCIST ITALY



NAZI GERMANY



NAZI IDEOLOGY



NUREMBERG LAWS



THE SS AND THE GESTAPO



LIFE IN NAZI GERMANY



HOLOCAUST



WORLD WAR II



LEAGUE OF NATIONS



APPEASEMENT



GERMAN-SOVIET NON-AGGRESSION PACT



POLAND



CONQUEST OF WESTERN EUROPE



VICHY FRANCE



THE FINAL SOLUTION



INVASION OF SOVIET UNION



TURNING POINTS



DIPLOMACY



THE COLD WAR



ROOTS



CONTAINMENT



MARSHALL PLAN



BERLIN CRISIS



NATO AND NUCLEAR ARMS



KOREAN WAR



STALIN’S FINAL YEARS



IRON CURTAIN



KHRUSHCHEV



SUEZ CRISIS



SPUTNIK AND U-2 INCIDENT



BERLIN WALL



CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS



BREZHNEV ERA



VIETNAM WAR



WILLY BRANDT



DETENTE



HELSINKI CONFERENCE



AFGHANISTAN



GORBACHEV



INF TREATY



1989



FALL OF THE SOVIET UNION



WESTERN EUROPEAN RECOVERY



WEST GERMANY



FRANCE



GREAT BRITAIN



ITALY



ECONOMIC MIRACLE



CONSUMERISM



OIL CRISIS



EUROPEAN UNITY



WELFARE STATE



FAMILY



WOMEN’S RIGHTS MOVEMENT



COUNTER CULTURE



DECOLONIZATION



INDIA



EGYPT



ALGERIA



MIDDLE EAST



ISRAEL



GERMAN UNIFICATION



YUGOSLAVIA



GUEST WORKERS




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