The renaissance analzye the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the italian renaissance


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Work was taken away from the home

  • Man was the breadwinner



  • Women’s role was now tied to domestic duties

    • Women’s role was now tied to domestic duties

    • Single women worked for low wages and faced exploitation

    • Irish workers came to Britain for better jobs and to escape the Irish Potato Famine



    WORKING CONDITIONS

    • 14 hours a day, few holidays

    • Brutal and unsafe conditions

    • Low wages especially for women and children

    • Real wages increased 50%

    • Skilled workers made 2X that of unskilled

    • Work was impersonal

    • Child Labor

      • Abandoned children
      • 12 hour days and appalling conditions
      • Families worked as a unit


    Saddler Commission

    • Saddler Commission

      • Investigated working conditions
    • Factory Act of 1833

      • Limited workday for children 9-13 to 8 hours a day
      • Limited hours of ages 14-18 to 12 hours a day
      • Elementary education for children under age of 9


    INDUSTRIAL WORKER

    • Proletariat = Factory Workers

    • Poorhouses provided disgusting work designed to persuade workers to get out of the Poorhouses

    • Luddites

      • Irate workers smashed machines
      • Feared machines were taking their jobs
    • Friedrich Engels (The Condition of the Working Class)

      • Colleague of Karl Marx
      • Charged the English Middle Class with mass murder, robbery and other crimes at the expense of the proletariat


    UNION MOVMENT

    • Leaders began organizing workers to resist exploitation

    • Combination Acts (1799)

      • Prohibited Unions
      • Fear from the French Revolution =
    • Robert Owen

    • Chartists

      • All men have the right to vote
    • Unions wanted the 10-hour day and cheaper grain prices (Anti-Corn laws)

    • Bread and Butter issues =



    CONSERVATISM, NATIONALISM, LIBERALISM & SOCIALISM



    CONCERT OF EUROPE

    • Keep the status quo (Conservatives)

    • Dominated by Prince Metternich



    CONSERVATISM

    • A reaction to liberalism and the violence of the French Revolution

    • Edmund Burke

    • Worried about Nationalism threatening the empires (Austrian)



    CARLSBAD DECREES

    • Multi-ethnic composition of the Austrian Hapsburg Empire inspired liberalism and nationalism ideas

    • Universities, professors and student groups were more liberal and nationalistic

    • Prince Metternich cracked down on liberalism in universities

    • Unification literature was censored



    PETERLOO MASSACRE

    • Corn Laws of 1815 halted importation of cheaper foreign grain

      • Benefited wealthy English landowners
      • Hurt the majority of English population
    • Pro-Liberal crowd listening to anti-Corn law speeches were attacked by British police

      • 11 killed
    • Press was censored and mass meetings prohibited



    NATIONALISM

    • Turn cultural unity into self-government

    • Common language, history and traditions bring unity and common loyalities

    • Supported by Liberals

    • Origins: French Revolution and Napoleon

    • Johann G. Herder

      • Volksgeist
      • Every culture is unique
      • No one culture is superior
      • Every nation should contain all members of the same nationality


    Johann G. Fichte

    • Johann G. Fichte

      • Father of German nationalism
      • German superiority over other peoples
      • Criticized Jews


    REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENTS

    • Spain (1820)

    • Naples (1820)

      • Carbonari
      • Austrian troops crush rebellion
    • Greek Revolution (1821-29)

      • Eastern Question = Balkans
      • England, France and Russia join Greeks
      • Defeated Turks
      • Greek independence recognized


    LIBERALISM

    • Humans have certain “natural rights” and government should protect these rights

    • Rights are to be guaranteed by a written Constitution =

    • Republican form of government

      • Representative
    • Adam Smith (Wealth of Nations)



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