The renaissance analzye the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the italian renaissance


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Theory condemned by Catholics, Luther and Calvin

  • Tycho Brahe

    • Observatory collected data
    • Wanted to disprove Copernicus theory
  • Johannes Kepler



  • GALILEO

    • Developed the Laws of Motion

    • Used Empiricism (Controlled Experiments

    • Validated Copernicus Theory with telescope

    • Law of inertia

    • Forced to recant by Pope Urban VII



    SCIENTIFIC METHOD

    • Francis Bacon Inductive Method (Empiricism)

      • Observation, Hypothesis, Experiment and organize data
      • Find the truth at the end
    • Rene Descartes Deductive Method

      • Discourse on Method
      • Cogito Ergo Sum
      • Start with clear facts and subdivide each problem into as many parts as possible
      • Cartesian Dualism divided Mind and Matter
    • Modern Scientific Method

      • Inductive Method + Deductive Method


    SIR ISAAC NEWTON

    • Incorporated the astronomy of Copernicus and Kepler with the physics of Galileo to explain the order and design of the universe

      • Principia
      • Natural Laws of Motion – Gravitation
      • Natural laws are unchangeable and predictable
      • Deism


    EFFECTS

    • Astronomy

    • Mathematics

    • Deism

      • God is a Clock Maker
      • He set the universe into motion and watches
      • Prayer not needed
    • Anatomy

      • William Harvey – Blood flow
      • Anton van Leeuwenhoek – Bacteria
    • Scientific Community

      • Governments encouraged Scientific discoveries
      • Prestige and new technology
      • Royal Society of England
    • Navigation

    • Led directly to the Enlightenment



    ENLIGHTENMENT



    IMPACT ON SOCIETY

    • Emergence of a secular world view

    • Enlightened Despotism

    • American and French Revolutions

    • Education reforms

    • Growth of Laissez Faire capitalism

    • Classical Liberalism

      • Individual liberties
      • Equality before the law
      • Natural Rights
      • General Will
      • Freedom of Speech, Religion and Press


    JOHN LOCKE

    • Two Treatises of Civil Government

    • State of Nature – Humans are good but lack protections

    • Natural Rights – Life, Liberty and Property

    • Education is the key to human development

    • Tabula Rasa



    PHILOSOPHES

    • Believed in progress through discovering the natural laws governing nature and human existence

    • Voltaire

      • Challenged traditional Catholic theology
      • Crush the infamous thing
      • Advocated Enlightened Despotism
      • Defend to the death your right to freedom of speech
    • Baron de Montesquieu

      • Separation of powers into three branches
      • Checks and balances
    • Jean-Jacques Rousseau

      • Social Contract
      • General Will
      • All men are born free but everywhere are in chains
      • Man was a noble savage
      • Emile believed in progressive education through learning by doing


    Denis Diderot

    • Denis Diderot

      • Editor of Encyclopedia
      • Compilation of political and social critiques of the various Enlightenment philosophes
      • Emphasized science and reason
      • Critical of religion, injustice and tyranny
    • Marquis Beccaria

      • On Crimes and Punishments
      • Humanize criminal laws
      • Equality before the law
      • Opposed torture


    ADAM SMITH

    • Francois Quesnay was leader of the French physiocrats who opposed mercantilism and favored laissez faire

    • Adam Smith

      • Wealth of Nations
      • Expanded Laissez Faire
      • Too much government control hurt production
      • Believed economy governed by natural laws of supply and demand
      • Government should provide schools, roads and military to protect trade


    WOMEN

    • Salons

    • Emile – Women are to be obedient wife and mother

    • Voltaire – Women are capable of all that men do

    • Women patronized philosophes (Diderot)

    • Mary Wollstonecraft promoted political and educational equality for women to end women’s subjugation to men (slaves)



    IMMANUEL KANT

    • While reason can neither prove nor disprove the existence of God, faith and intuition can lead one to understand the spiritual truths, existence of God, immortality and heaven and hell.

    • “What is the Enlightenment”



    ENLIGHTENED ABSOLUTISM





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