The renaissance analzye the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the italian renaissance


NEW RELIGIOUS ORDERS Ignatius Loyola


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NEW RELIGIOUS ORDERS

  • Ignatius Loyola

    • Organized Jesuits in military fashion
    • Spiritual Exercises was guidebook for Jesuits
  • Jesuits

    • Reform the Church through education
    • Spread the Gospel to pagans
    • Fight Protestantism
  • Inquisitions

    • Persecution of Spanish Jews and Moors
    • Accused Jews of killing Christ
  • Catholic Reformation brought Southern Germany and Easter Europe back to the faith

  • Jesuit schools best in Europe



BAROQUE ART

  • Demonstrates the glory and power of the Catholic Church

  • Emotionalism and Color

  • Emphasized grandeur, emotion and unity surrounding a certain theme

  • Bernini

    • Architecture and Sculpture
    • The Ecstasy of St. Teresa
  • Carvaggio

    • Highly emotional
    • Biblical scenes
  • Peter Paul Reubens



RELIGIOUS WARS

  • 1559 - 1648



PHILIP II

  • Escorial

    • Wanted to re-impose Catholicism
    • Palace to symbolize his commitment to Catholicism
  • Battle of Lepanto

    • War against the Turks
    • Defeated Turkish navy
    • Ended Ottoman threat in Mediterranean
  • The Dutch Revolt (Netherlands)

    • William I led 17 provinces against Spanish Inquisition
    • United Provinces of the Netherlands formed was blow to Philip II
    • Spanish Netherlands remained Catholic
    • Amsterdam becomes commercial capital of the world


SPAIN VS. ENGLAND

  • Queen Mary Tudor tried to re-impose Catholicism in England

  • Queen Elizabeth I reversed Mary’s decisions with the Elizabethan Settlement

  • Elizabeth help the Protestant Netherlands

  • Spain wanted revenge for the Dutch Revolt and Mary Stuart

  • Spanish Armada

    • Spanish navy destroyed
    • England becomes the world’s naval power
    • Spain declines


FRENCH CIVIL WARS

  • Catherine de Medicis dominated

  • Nobles became Huguenots

  • France was devided

    • Bourbons = Huguenots
    • Guise = Ultra-Catholic
    • Valois = Catholic ruling family
  • St. Bartholomew Day Massacre (1572)

    • Marriage between Valois princess and leader of Huguenots (Henry of Navarre)
    • Catherine de Medici orders the massacre of the Calvinists


War of the Three Henry’s

  • War of the Three Henry’s

    • Civil War among the 3 groups
  • Henry IV (Henry Navarre)

    • Ended the War of the Three Henry’s
    • Politique
    • “Paris is worth a Mass”
  • Edict of Nantes

    • Religious toleration granted to Huguenots
    • Private worship allowed
    • Allowed access to education and jobs
    • Huguenots kept 200 fortified towns creating a state within a state


THIRTY YEARS WAR 1618 - 1648

  • Defenestration of Prague

    • Triggers war 1st phase of war in Bohemia
    • Restrictions placed on Protestants
  • Edict of Restitution

    • Declaration by HRE that all church territory was to restored to Catholic Church repealing the Peace of Augsburg
  • Gustavus Adolphus

  • Cardinal Richelieu

    • In the 4th phase Richelieu allies France (C) with the Protestant forces to defeat the Hapsburgs (C)
    • This was a political decision, not religious
    • Wanted to weaken the Hapsburg Empire


Treaty of Westphalia

  • Treaty of Westphalia

    • Ended 30 Years War
    • Renewal of Peace of Augsburg adding Calvinism
    • Netherlands and Switzerland gains independence
    • 300+ German states gain sovereignty
    • France and Brandenburg (Prussia) gain territory
    • The Hapsburgs are divided: Spain and Austria
  • Results

    • Germany physically devastated
    • Germany remains divided politically and religiously
    • Ended religious wars
    • France becomes dominant power


AGE OF ABSOLUTISM



PHILOSOPHY

  • Jean Bodin

  • Thomas Hobbes

    • Humans are poor, nasty and brutish
    • Favored Enlightened despots
  • Bishop Jacques Bossuet

    • Advocated Divine Rights of Kings
    • Believed King was placed on the throne by God


FRANCE

  • France was divided into three Estates

    • 1st Estate = Clergy
    • 2nd Estate = Nobles
    • 3rd Estate = Bourgeoisie, Urban workers & peasants (95%)
  • Hierarchy was based on rank and privilege

  • Agrarian


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