The renaissance analzye the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the italian renaissance


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Rise in capitalism led by bourgeoisie

  • Banking

    • Fuggers in Germany
    • Medicis in Italy
    • Antwerp (16th Century)
    • Amsterdam (17th Century)


    • Hanseatic League

      • German states that controlled trade
    • Joint-Stock Companies

      • Investors pooled resources for common purpose
      • Virginia
    • New Industries and Goods

      • Textiles, Mining, Printing, Shipbuilding, Weapons
      • Sugar (most expensive), rice and tea


    • Mercantilism

      • Nations sought self-sufficiency
      • Export more than import
      • Bullionism – Acquire Gold
      • Trade’s goal was keep gold from going to competing company


    PRICE REVOLUTION

    • The emergence of nation states led to taxation

    • Exploration created empires

    • Prices rose gradually in the 16th century

    • More population demanded more goods which increased prices

    • Influx of gold for the New World

    • Inflation

    • Bourgeoisie



    LIFE IN 16th & 17th CENTURIES

    • Countryside

      • Lords/Nobles at the top
      • Peasants owned land
      • Landless workers
    • Towns

      • Bourgeoisie were the wealthiest
      • Skilled craftsman belonged to guilds
      • Low-skilled jobs for low wages


    THE FAMILY

    • Nuclear

    • Age of marriage higher (economics)

      • Dowries
      • Permission needed
    • Children

      • Average number of kids 6
      • Post 1750 an increase in illegitimate births
    • Women

      • Marriage was an escaped from hard life of work


    Child Care

    • Child Care

      • Poor women breast fed
      • Wealthier women used wet nurses
      • Foundling Hospitals
      • Spare the rod and spoil the child
      • Girls were sent to the city
    • Education



    Life Expectancy

    • Life Expectancy

      • Increase from 25-35
      • No plague
      • Sanitation
      • Vaccinations
      • Clothing
      • Better food
      • Potato
      • Meat, fish and alcohol
    • Medical

      • Smallpox
      • Edward Jenner


    WITCH HUNTS

    • Belief in Magic

    • Church

    • Women

    • Scientific Revolution

    • Medicine

    • Trials

    • Reformation



    PROTESTANT REFORMATION



    CAUSES

    • Crisis in the Church

      • Babylonian Captivity
      • Great Schism
      • Concilliar Movement
        • Give Church Councils more power than Pope (Rejected)
    • Corruption in the Church

      • Simony
      • Pluralism
      • Absenteeism
      • Nepotism
      • Sale of Indulgences


    Moral decline

      • Moral decline
        • Pope Alexander VI
        • 20% of priests had concubines
      • Clerical Ignorance
    • John Wyclif

    • Thomas a Kempis

      • Brethren of the Common Life
      • Live a simple life and make religion personal




    MARTIN LUTHER

    • Johann Tetzel

      • Authorized to sale indulgences by Pope Leo X (St. Peter’s)
    • 95 Theses

      • Wittenberg
      • Criticized the sale of indulgences
    • Debate with Johann Ecks

    • Theology of Reform

      • Salvation by Faith alone
      • Bible is sole authority
      • Only 2 sacraments
      • Priesthood of all believers
      • Encouraged German princes to reform the church
      • Rejected celibacy (Marriage)


    Diet of Worms

    • Diet of Worms

      • Charles V demands Luther recant
      • “Here I stand”


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