The renaissance analzye the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the italian renaissance


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CHARACTERISTICS

  • Belief that Absolute Rulers should promote the good of the people

  • Religious toleration

  • Legal codes

  • Increased access to education

  • Reduction or elimination of torture and the death penalty



FREDERICK THE GREAT

  • First Servant of the State

  • Reforms increased power of the state

  • Religious freedom to Catholics and Jews

  • Created a clear unified national code of law

  • Freed serfs on royal lands

  • Abolished capital punishment

  • Junkers – backbone of Prussia

    • Nobles
    • Serfdom maintained
    • Marriages not recognized between nobles and commoners


CATHERINE THE GREAT

  • Boyars given complete control of serfs

  • Imported western culture into Russia

  • Printing Press introduced

  • Restricted torture

  • Limited religious toleration – Old Believers

  • Only nobles benefited



MARIA THERESA

  • Pragmatic Sanction

  • Limited the power of the nobles and Church

    • Partially freed the serfs
    • Reduced tortures
    • Suppressed the Jesuits
    • Taxed the church
  • Economics

    • Abolished guilds
    • Abolished internal tariffs
    • Improved transportation


JOSEPH II

  • Abolished serfdom

  • Freedom of religion given to Protestants and Jews

  • Reformed judicial system

  • Abolished torture and death penalty

  • Established hospitals

  • Expanded state schools

  • Made parks available to public

  • Made German the official language



EUROPE IN THE 17th & 18th CENTURIES



AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION

  • 80% of Western Europe were farmers and higher in the East

  • Open Field System

  • England and Netherlands

  • Increase in food production led to population explosion

  • New methods of cultivation

    • Cornelius Vermuyden – Drainage
    • Charles Townsend – Crop rotation
    • Jethro Tull – Seed Drill
    • Robert Bakewell – Selective Breeding
  • Columbian Exchange

    • Potatoes and Corn
    • Sugar


Enclosure Movement

  • Enclosure Movement

    • 1st Enclosure (16th Century) for Sheep
    • 2nd Enclosure (18th Century) ended Open Field System
    • Commericalization of Agriculture
    • Increased farm size
    • Corn Laws benefited landowners
    • Peasants forced off land
  • Impact of Agricultural Revolution

    • Population Explosion
    • Enclosure movement
    • Cottage Industry
    • Lower food prices


ATLANTIC ECONOMY

  • Spain, Portugal, Netherlands, Great Britain and France

  • Mercantilism

  • Bullionism

  • Navigation Acts

  • Triangular Trade

  • The Dutch

  • The Slave Trade



The Bubbles

  • The Bubbles

  • Colonial Wars

    • Britain vs. France
    • Treaty of Utrecht
      • Ended War of Spanish Succession
      • Asiento given to Britain
    • Seven Years War
      • Started over who would control North America
      • Treaty of Paris ended war
      • France lost Canada
      • Spain given Louisiana
      • Britain received India
    • The American Revolution


POPULATION GROWTH

  • Potato

  • Better diet = better immune system

  • Improved sanitation system

  • Medicine advances (Edward Jenner)



THE FAMILY



EDUCATION AND HEALTH



THE FRENCH REVOLUTION



ANCIEN REGIME

  • Louis XV restored the Parlement

  • First Estate

  • Second Estate

  • Third Estate

    • Taille
    • Corvee
    • Bourgeoisie
    • Lettre de cachet
      • Arrest warrant without charges or trial


LONG-TERM CAUSES

  • American ideals of liberty

  • Enlightenment ideas led to criticism of government

  • Laissez faire

    • Adam Smith
  • French debt

  • American Revolution



SHORT TERM CAUSES

  • France was bankrupt because of the debt

  • Inefficient tax system

  • Inflation (65%)

  • Jacques Necker tried to raise taxes on Nobility



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