Understanding Metonymies in Discourse

Known relationship patterns

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Understanding Metonymies in Discourse

Known relationship patterns

  • Make use of producer-for-product, etc. patterns where applicable. Prefer interpretations that fit a known pattern to ones that would require on-the-fly creation of a new pattern

Aptness conditions

Components of Markert and Hahn’s metonymy resolution system

  • KL-ONE knowledge representation system with information about the hierarchical and lateral relations between entities in an information technology domain. Defines relationship duals such as “has-part”, “part-of”, etc.
  • “Path Finder” component and set of relationship path rules for identifying non-cyclic paths between related concepts
  • “Path Classifier” component and set of interpretation conditions for obtaining and ranking literal and metonymic interpretations

Path Finder

  • Finds all well-formed paths between concepts that correspond to conceptual interpretations of the syntactic relationship between the referents of the concepts. Uses these definitions:
    • conceptual relatedness (of two concepts)
    • connectivity (of a series of relations)
    • cyclicity (of a connective path)
      • A path is cyclic iff it contains two non-identical relations that are inverses of each other or have an inverse super-relation.
      • Ex. (Printer, Printer-of, Computer-system, Has-Central-Unit Central-Unit) is cyclic because Printer-of is a sub-relation of Part-of and Has-central-unit is a sub-relation of Has-part
  • Does not distinguish between literal and metonymic paths

Path Classifier

  • Uses predefined path patterns to separate paths into three groups: literal paths, metonymic paths and unclassified paths (not currently able to construct new patterns such as food-for-customer).
  • Performs metonymic and nominal anaphora resolution in tandem.
    • Identifies anaphora and prefers interpretations that resolve anaphoric reference.
    • Ranks interpretations according to degree of “referential cohesion”, in which literal, metonymic and anaphoric references are resolved most satisfactorily.

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