Welcome! And Thank You!!


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The presenters would like to thank the American Radio Relay League for permission to use copyrighted ARECC Level 1 course material that is included in this classroom presentation material

  • The presenters would like to thank the American Radio Relay League for permission to use copyrighted ARECC Level 1 course material that is included in this classroom presentation material

  • In addition, supplemental material has been obtained through various sources including the Citizen Corps CERT website, Seattle Emergency Management, King County Emergency Management, Washington Military Department Emergency Management Division, Washington State ARES/RACES, King County ARES/RACES, Seattle ACS, Western Washington Medical Services Team

  • Slides for this presentation were developed by Brian Daly, WB7OML, EC - King County (WA) District M - Western Washington Medical Services Team and leadership team of the Seattle ACS. Permission is granted to any amateur radio team to use provided credit is given to the developer.

  • Presenters:

    • Brian Daly WB7OML
    • DeWayne Sennett KE7DXW
    • Alan Jones KD7KUS


Activity Sheet

  • Activity Sheet

  • Course Evaluation Sheet

  • 3 lessons, followed by a short break



Welcome! And Thank You!!

  • Welcome! And Thank You!!

  • We are here to improve professionalism and effectiveness of our public service efforts

    • Share a common base of knowledge, skills and procedures
    • Learn new skills, new ways of thinking about existing skills
  • Make note of any ideas you may have, and submit on the course evaluation sheet

  • Share stories of how this applies to your local teams



Objectives of the course

  • Objectives of the course

    • To provide a baseline level of knowledge and skill in Amateur Radio Emergency Communications for anyone wishing to assist their local emergency communications organizations




1,660 dead

  • 1,660 dead

  • 24,200 injured

  • 9,700 buildings destroyed

  • 29,000 buildings severely damages and unsafe

  • 154,000 buildings moderately damaged with use restricted

  • 130 fires burn

  • All major highways experience partial closures lasting months



Katrina?

  • Katrina?

  • Tsunami?



Scenario for a Magnitude 6.7 Earthquake on the Seattle Fault

  • Scenario for a Magnitude 6.7 Earthquake on the Seattle Fault

    • Seattle Fault M6.7
    • Shallow Quake
    • Fault Rupture at surface in Bellevue
  • Losses similar to the M6.7 Northridge earthquake

    • U.S. most costly to date




A Communication Emergency exists when:

  • A Communication Emergency exists when:

    • A critical communication failure puts the public at risk
  • Variety of circumstances leads to a communication emergency

    • Overload or damage to critical day-to-day systems








Pacific Northwest windstorm

  • Pacific Northwest windstorm

  • Western Washington snowfall of December 2008

  • Nisqually earthquake

  • 9-1-1 center telephone outage

  • Widespread power outage

  • Cascadia subduction zone earthquake

  • Internal hospital PBX outage

  • Cable television system outage

  • Avalanche at Snoqualmie Pass

  • Western Washington floods of 2007 or 2009





Disaster  “ill-starred”

  • Disaster  “ill-starred”

    • “dis” – Latin for “away”
    • “astrum” – Latin for “stars”
  • Conversations about disaster 

    • Typically surrounded by fear and superstition


Rank order the following disaster risks for Seattle/King County from highest risk to lowest risk

  • Rank order the following disaster risks for Seattle/King County from highest risk to lowest risk

  • Consider both:

    • Frequency &
    • Effects of the disaster






King County is at risk for a wide-range of natural, technological, and human-caused disasters

  • King County is at risk for a wide-range of natural, technological, and human-caused disasters

  • Between 1964 and 2005, King County has had 20 presidential declared disasters

  • Have the potential for:

    • severe weather events
      • floods, ice, wind, and snowstorms
    • landslide risks
    • transportation and fixed-site hazardous material issues
    • could be vulnerable to terrorist activities










The Pacific Northwest Seismic Network

  • The Pacific Northwest Seismic Network

    • http://www.pnsn.org/
  • KING5 Earthquake

    • http://www.king5.com/quake/
  • Washington State Emergency Management

    • http://emd.wa.gov/hazards/haz_earthquakes.shtml










King County Snow & Ice Plan

  • King County Snow & Ice Plan

    • http://www.govlink.org/storm/roads.asp
  • City of Seattle Snow & Ice Plan

    • http://www.seattle.gov/transportation/snowandice.htm


Emergency Coordination Zone 1 - East King County

  • Emergency Coordination Zone 1 - East King County

    • was created from former Fire Zones 1 and 2
  • Emergency Coordination Zone 3 – South King County

    • was created from a merger of Fire Zones 3 and 4 in July 2002
  • Emergency Coordination Zone 5 - the City of Seattle



The population density, complex system of governance, and significant risks we face (for both natural and technological disasters) created the need to plan for a coordinated response among public, private, tribal and nonprofit entities in King County

  • The population density, complex system of governance, and significant risks we face (for both natural and technological disasters) created the need to plan for a coordinated response among public, private, tribal and nonprofit entities in King County





Common Attributes:

  • Common Attributes:

    • Desire to help others without personal gain of any kind
    • Ability to work as a member of a team
    • Ability to take direction from others
    • Think and act quickly
      • Under stress and pressure of an emergency


Amateurs bring:

  • Amateurs bring:

    • Equipment
    • Skills
    • Frequencies
  • Create expedient emergency communications network under poor conditions

    • Flexible, expandable
  • We are licensed & preauthorized for national and international communications



Radios, Frequencies and Basic Radio Skills are not enough!

  • Radios, Frequencies and Basic Radio Skills are not enough!

  • Without specific emergency communication skills, you can easily become part of the problem

  • Technical and Operating Skills are critical…

    • And so is your ability to function as a team player within your organization as well as the organization you are serving


Important to know your limits of responsibility as an emergency communicator

  • Important to know your limits of responsibility as an emergency communicator

  • Specifically:

    • You are not a first responder
    • You have no authority
      • Cannot make decisions for others
      • Cannot make demands on the served agency
    • You can & should make decisions affecting your own health & safety


You cannot “do it all”

  • You cannot “do it all”

    • If the served agency runs short of specialized help, it is not your job to fill it
      • especially if you are not trained for the job!
    • But you can fill in an urgent need or perform jobs where communication is an integral part, if you are qualified
  • You are not in charge!



“Day-to Day” Amateur Radio

  • “Day-to Day” Amateur Radio

    • No pressure to get a message through
    • Do things at your leisure
    • No one’s life depends on it
  • Public Service Events

    • Scheduled and Planned
  • Field Day

    • Plan for 2-day operation


Emergency Communications

  • Emergency Communications

    • May involve both Amateurs and non-Amateurs
    • Happen in real-time
    • May have several nets simultaneously
      • Pass critical messages in a limited timeframe
    • Portable stations, quickly set up and operational anywhere


Varies with specific agency served

  • Varies with specific agency served

    • Example: American Red Cross
      • Provide communications needed to maintain shelters and other relief efforts
    • Example: State/Local Emergency Management


Important to remember your job is:

  • Important to remember your job is:

    • “communicating”
  • Communicating does not automatically imply amateur radios

    • Be prepared to use any means required


Our job – GET THE MESSAGE THROUGH

  • Our job – GET THE MESSAGE THROUGH

    • Don’t think about how to use the ham radio to send the message ---
    • Just think about the best and fastest way to send it
      • If the best way is a FAX, cell phone, CB or FRS – use it
      • If an agency asks you to use their radio system, use it


Early phase of a disaster

  • Early phase of a disaster

    • Severe storm “watch” or “warning” period
    • In many cases, no immediate need for emergency communications
      • Earthquake may be an exception
    • Monitor developments and prepare to deploy
    • Some nets may be activated
      • Hurricane, Skywarn


Once need for more communication resources is identified

  • Once need for more communication resources is identified

    • Served agency puts out call to volunteers
      • Emergency Operations Center (EOC)
      • Field locations
  • “Rapid Response Team” (RRT)

    • Minimal, quick response in a very short time
    • Backed up by a more robust response after 1-2 hours


“Resource” or “Logistics” net may be established

  • “Resource” or “Logistics” net may be established

    • Handle incoming emcomm volunteers
    • Direct resources where needed most
    • Unassigned volunteers check in and monitor




Staffing a Shelter

  • Staffing a Shelter

    • Handle calls for information, supplies, personnel
  • “Shadowing”

    • Communication link for an official
  • Gathering Weather Information



Nets will be set up, re-arranged, and dismantled as needs change

  • Nets will be set up, re-arranged, and dismantled as needs change

    • Remain flexible to meet needs of served agency
  • Over time, communication needs diminish

    • Nets closed
    • Operators released


Review the effectiveness of response

  • Review the effectiveness of response

    • Within the emergency communications group, and/or with the served agency
    • Should occur as soon as possible




1a. List three ways in which Emergency Communications are similar to Non-emergency Communications.

  • 1a. List three ways in which Emergency Communications are similar to Non-emergency Communications.

  • 1b. List six ways in which Emergency Communications differ from Non-emergency Communications.



When does a communication emergency exist?

  • When does a communication emergency exist?

    • Whenever the public is at risk.
    • When there is an earthquake in your area and the public is inconvenienced.
    • When a critical communication system fails and the public is inconvenienced.
    • When a critical communication system fails and the public is put at risk.


Which of the following is it most important for an emcomm group to do at the end of an emergency communication operation?

  • Which of the following is it most important for an emcomm group to do at the end of an emergency communication operation?

    • Review the effectiveness of its response.
    • Take photos of the activity.
    • Call the local newspaper to schedule interviews.
    • Review the activities of the first responders.


Which of the following is NOT a responsibility of emergency communicators?

  • Which of the following is NOT a responsibility of emergency communicators?

    • Making demands on the agency being served.
    • Having radios, frequencies and basic radio skills.
    • Being licensed and preauthorized for national and international communications.
    • Possessing emergency communication skills.


Which of the following describes the function of a Rapid Response Team (RRT)?

  • Which of the following describes the function of a Rapid Response Team (RRT)?

    • To handle large-scale emergencies over an extended period.
    • To deploy a quick response in a very short time.
    • To establish and operate a storm watch prior to any emergency.
    • To review the effectiveness of an emergency communication group.


In an emergency situation -- when a served agency asks you to forward an urgent message -- which one of the following methods would you NOT employ?

  • In an emergency situation -- when a served agency asks you to forward an urgent message -- which one of the following methods would you NOT employ?

    • CB radio
    • Family radio
    • Informal, conversational grapevine
    • The served agency's own radio system.


Information to Send

  • Information to Send



ARRL Public Service Communications Manual http://www.arrl.org/FandES/field/pscm/sec1-ch1.html

  • ARRL Public Service Communications Manual http://www.arrl.org/FandES/field/pscm/sec1-ch1.html







“Working with ham radio operators is like herding cats.. Get them the heck out of here!”

  • “Working with ham radio operators is like herding cats.. Get them the heck out of here!”

    • Words of one emergency management official
  • Attitude is everything!

    • This has been a weak point for amateurs historically
    • Will most affect your relationship with the served agency
  • Amateur means we are not paid for our efforts

  • Professionalism means getting the job done efficiently – with a minimum of fuss!



You work for them!

  • You work for them!

    • “Them” being the served agency
  • Your job?

  • How to end a relationship with an agency:

    • Be a “Know it all”
    • “I will show you how good I am and how inadequate you are”
    • “I can do this better than you!”


You do not have to “take orders” as a volunteer

  • You do not have to “take orders” as a volunteer

  • However…as a volunteer…

    • You implicitly agree to accept and comply with reasonable orders and requests from your “employer”
    • If you are not comfortable with this, then don’t volunteer


Situations where you may not be able to comply include:

  • Situations where you may not be able to comply include:

    • Personal,
    • Related to safety and health,
    • You do not consider yourself qualified or capable of meeting the demand,
    • Or perhaps the request is something that is not permitted under FCC rules


What would you do in these circumstances?

  • What would you do in these circumstances?

    • Your agency has asked you to relay a message on their 800MHz system. You have not been trained on this system.
    • Your agency has asked you to pass a patient’s name and specific health details to another hospital.
    • Your agency representative (non-licensed) tells you to run an errand and while you are gone, he will operate the amateur radio station and pass several messages that he has written.


“Less than useful” or “Part timers”

  • “Less than useful” or “Part timers”

    • Professionals view when they don’t work regularly with competent volunteers
    • Some agencies have learned volunteers cannot be depended upon when needed most
    • Need a positive, and long established relationship
  • Professionals

    • Great amount of time and effort into skills and training
    • “able to handle all possible situations without outside assistance”


I thought you said our job should be limited to “communicating”?

  • I thought you said our job should be limited to “communicating”?

    • Yes and no…
  • Events happen quickly, agency’s communications must move fast too

  • Job description is more like….

    • “any function that also includes communication”
    • Defined by the served agency


Because the job description may be broad…

  • Because the job description may be broad…

    • Pre-planning to clearly define jobs is essential
    • Obtain job-specific training in advance
    • Take part in exercises and drills


Radio operator, using Amateur or served agency’s radio systems

  • Radio operator, using Amateur or served agency’s radio systems

  • Dispatcher, organizing the flow of personnel, vehicles, and supplies

  • Resource coordinator, organizing assignments of disaster relief volunteers

  • Damage assessor, evaluating and reporting damage conditions

  • Van driver, moving people and supplies from location to location

  • Searcher, also providing communication for a search and rescue team



Define general relationships

  • Define general relationships

    • Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)
    • Statement of Understanding (SOU)
    • Statement of Affiliation (SOA)
  • Actual working relationships are more precisely defined at the local level



Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

  • Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

    • Statement of Affiliation, making ARES an affiliate member of DHS's Citizen's Corp community readiness program
  • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

    • Military Affiliate Radio System (MARS) and at the national level with ARRL


State and Local Emergency Management

  • State and Local Emergency Management

    • Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES)


Press will be hunting for any tidbit of information

  • Press will be hunting for any tidbit of information

  • They should never get information regarding a served agency or its efforts from you

    • Don’t try to put yourself in the spotlight
  • Refer all requests to the served agency’s public spokesperson or “Public Information Officer”





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