Changes in Central and Eastern Europe Ch 19. 4 10 1, 5, 7

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Changes in Central and Eastern Europe

  • Ch 19.4

  • 10.9.1, 5, 7

Why ?

  • The Soviet reforms of the 1980’s under Mikhail Gorbachev urged Central and Eastern European satellite countries to open up their economies and political systems.

Poland and Hungary Reform

  • In the 1980’s Polish workers united and demanded government recognition of their union, Solidarity.

  • Union Leader, Lech Walesa, became a national hero.

  • After a steep economic decline, the union was recognized in 1989.

  • Poland held free elections in 1989 & 1990; overwhelming victory for Solidarity

  • Walesa becomes the first President.

Lech Walesa 1990-1995

In 1995 Walesa out Kwasniewski In

  • Many Poles remained unhappy with the slow pace of economic progress.

  • They elected a former Communist leader Aleksander Kwasniewski as president.

  • He was a strong supporter of the war against terror and pushed for democracy and free markets.

  • 1999 Poland joined NATO.

Aleksander Kwasniewski 1995-2005

Lech Kaczyński Current President, 2005-

Update on Poland

  • On 10 April 2010, two Presidents of Poland, Lech Kaczyński and Ryszard Kaczorowski, died in the 2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154 crash.

Bronisław Komorowski

  • Bronisław Komorowski is acting president until a special election to be held June 10, 2010.

Hungarian Reforms

  • Inspired by Poland, leaders made sweeping reforms including:

    • Encouraged private enterprise
    • Allowed a stock market
    • Allowed a Multiparty system with free elections (1989,1994,1998)
    • Joined NATO in 1999.

Germany Reunifies

  • 1989 When the East German government closed its borders, huge demonstrations and protests were held throughout East Germany.

  • Protesters demanded the right to travel freely and the right to vote in free elections.

The Berlin Wall falls November 10, 1989

  • By October 1990, East Germany and West Germany were officially reunited.

  • As Central Europe’s largest country, Germany gained global responsibilities.

Horst Köhler , 2009-Current President of Germany

Angela Merkel, 2009- Current Chancellor Of Germany

Democracy Spreads in Czechoslovakia

  • 1989, While crowds were demanding democracy in East Germany, the Czech government was cracking down on dissidents.

  • Larger and larger protests demanded an end to Communist rule. On Nov.25, 1989 the communist leadership resigned and a month later parliament elected a new president, Vaclav Havel.

Václav Havel

Czechoslovakia Breaks Up, January 1, 1993

  • An economic reform program caused a sharp rise in unemployment that especially hurt Slovakia. Unable to agree on economic policy, the country’s two parts drifted apart and formed the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

Czech President Václav Klaus.

Slovak President Ivan Gasparovic

Overthrow in Romania

  • Late 1989 Romania was still controlled by a ruthless dictator, Nicolae Ceausescu.

  • In December 1989, he ordered a massacre of demonstrators in the city of Timisoara.

  • Ceausescu fled when the people rose up against him.

  • He was captured and executed on Christmas day 1989.

  • Romania is still struggling with economic problems. Two thirds of the economy is still state controlled.

Current President of Romania Traian Basescu

The Break-up of Yugoslavia

  • Ethnic conflict plagued Yugoslavia.

  • Eight major ethnic groups—Serbs, Croats, Muslims, Slovenes, Macedonians, Albanians, Hungarians, and Montenegrins.

  • Three major religions-Roman Catholic, Orthodox Christians, Muslims.

Former Yugoslavia (Refer to map, pg. 623

The Break-up of Yugoslavia (cont.)

  • Josip Tito held the country together from 1945 to 1980.

  • When the next Serbian Leader, Slobodan Milošević, took control, many Serbs fled.

  • 1991-Slovenia and Croatia declared independence.

  • 1992-Bosnia-Herzgovina declared independence.

  • A bloody civil war existed until 1999.

The Break-up of Yugoslavia (cont.)

  • Ethnic conflicts and the end of Tito’s Communist rule led to the break-up of Yugoslavia, and in turn, Serbian invasion of Slovenia and Croatia, and the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

  • During the war, Serbs followed a policy of brutality and murder called ethnic cleansing to wipe out the Muslims living in Serb-held lands.

The Break-up of Yugoslavia (cont.)

  • In the early years of the 21st century, Milosevic was extradited and ordered to stand trial for crimes against humanity.

  • The trial ended without a verdict because he died during the trial.

The Break-up of Yugoslavia (cont.)

  • Milošević was found dead in his cell on March 11, 2006, in the UN war crimes tribunal's detention center, located in the Scheveningen section of The Hague.

Current President of Serbia Boris Tadic

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