History and ideas of development of electrical and electronics science

Download 21.8 Kb.
Hajmi21.8 Kb.
  1   2   3


1. Its place in the history, development and progress of electrical engineering.

2. The purpose, tasks and development of electricity in Uzbekistan.

3. Information about electric energy - electric charge, area, electric current, potential, resistance, dielectric, photoeffect, thermoelectronic emission.
Its place in the history, development and progress of electrical engineering.
Electrotechnical science is a science that studies the ways of generating electricity and using it for practical purposes. Currently, electric energy, unlike all known energies, occupies an unparalleled place in industry, transport, agriculture, household services and all spheres of the national economy. The advantages of this energy are;

a) it can be converted into any type of energy, or any energy can be converted into electrical energy,

b) with the help of the simplest and cheapest devices, it is possible to transmit electric energy at a very high speed, in any amount and over long distances,

c) ecologically clean, does not pollute the environment, has no smell, no color, does not emit waste.

Russian scientists and engineers contributed a great deal to the development of electrical engineering. The study of electrical phenomena began in 1650 with the creation of the first electric machine. In 1785, Coulomb created the law of interaction of electric charges. The study of the first electrochemical source of voltage began in 1799, when it was created by A. Volta. In 1802, the physicist professor V. Petrov created the electric arc. In 1832, the Russian scientist P. Shilling created the telegraph. In 1834, E.H. Lentz founded the law of electromagnetic induction. B. Jacobi was the first to create a DC electric motor. In 1873, the Russian scientist A.N. Lodigin invented the light bulb. In 1876, P. N. Yablochkov created a transformer, which is considered an important device of the electric network. In 1877, Thomas Edison proved that it was possible to record sound on magnetic tape. By the end of the 19th century, in 1891, Russian engineer M. O. Dolivo-Dobrovolsky discovered a three-phase alternating current generator and three-phase asynchronous motors, which are its main consumers. Currently, along with other energies, electricity is widely used in industry, transport and all sectors of the national economy. Humanity has been studying various phenomena for several hundred years, and they have drawn such conclusions from the external environment that surrounds us, that everything outside of us that surrounds us is determined by how it looks and is structured. they are composed of the simplest elements - atoms. Several atoms combine to form molecules. Several molecules combine to form solid, liquid and gas bodies that are visible to you and us. Well, everything in the environment outside of us consists of atoms, i.e. protons and neutrons, one positive and one negative particle. A few protons combine to form the nucleus of an atom, and a few neutrons combine to form the electrons of substances. The nucleus and electron are one whole atom.
According to the current theory, each atom consists of two parts: a positively charged nucleus and a negatively charged electron. An atom does not have any electrical properties because it contains two different charges in the same amount. Atoms of different elements differ from each other only in atomic weight. Their weight depends on the amount of electrons and protons they keep in their composition. For example; the weight of the hydrogen (N) atom is equal to 1 in Mendeleev's table, because its atom consists of 1 electron and 1 proton. A copper atom has 29 electrons around the nucleus, and a gold atom has 79 electrons around it. The number of electrons in an atom of elements always corresponds to its position in D. Mendeleev's table.
If we talk about the future perspective of electrical engineering science, in short, apart from our requirements for electricity in our daily life, we should also consider the work of spaceships going into space, the work of electric cars running on electricity, the new inventions that are emerging in the national economy, it is difficult for us to do without the participation of electricity.
The development of knowledge about electricity and magnetism led to the creation of E. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Czech physicist P. Divish, Russian physicist G.V. Rychman, M.V. Lomonosov, Sh.O. The work of Coulomb and others was devoted to the study of electrical phenomena. The appearance of the first source of continuous current - the voltaic column, and later more perfect galvanic elements - became important in the development of E. In the first half of the 19th century, much research was done on chemical, thermal, light, and magnetic phenomena related to electricity. During this period, the foundations of electrodynamics were laid, and the important law of the electric circuit - Ohm's cone - was discovered. He used the achievements in this field especially widely in telegraphy, military work, electrical measurement work. The discovery of electromagnetic induction led to the creation of electric machines - motors and generators.

At the end of the 70s of the 19th century, J.K. Maxwell's work laid the foundation for the theory of the electromagnetic field. In the 1980s, DC electric machines took the form of modern machines. At the same time as electric machine generators, chemical current sources were also developed. In this field, a lead accumulator was created (French physicist G. Plante, 1859) and developed.

The further development of E. was associated with the emergence of E. industry and the widespread use of electric light. Achievements in the creation and use of electric lighting sources had a strong impact on the development of lighting technology. The widespread introduction of electric light led to the creation of the electric power system. Electric current was also used in metal copying and metal plating (see Electroplating).

In the 70s and 80s of the 19th century, it became possible to widely use electricity only after the long-distance transmission of electricity was solved.

Among the inventions that founded the current stage of development of E. M.O. Three-phase current transformer, three-phase generator and motor, and three-phase current systems created by Dolivo-Dobrovolsky can be included. The increase in demand for electricity has led to the construction of powerful power plants and power networks, the creation of new power systems and the restoration of old ones. The improvement of E. devices contributed to the formation of such scientific fields as the technique and theory of high-voltage electric circuits, electric machines, and the theory of electric circuits. E.'s achievements led to the development of radio engineering, electronics, telemechanics, automation, computing and cybernetics.

Electromechanics, one of the important sections of E., includes issues related to the change of energy.

It is important to develop methods for optimal management of complex electric power systems and increasing their capacity. The solution to these problems is based on the use of modeling and probability theory. Another important direction of E. is the creation of complex electromagnetic fields with predetermined properties. The study of high-intensity pulse fields is of great practical importance (see Pulse techniques). The results of work in this field are used to create extremely powerful electric transformers and electric reactors.

E.'s theoretical methods are developing in a number of areas related to the investigation of the properties of substances, the development of nuclear and laser equipment, the study of the microworld and life activities of living organisms, and the development of outer space. E.'s achievements are used in all spheres of practical human activity - industry, agriculture, medicine and life. Development of E. G. in Uzbekistan. R. Rahimov, M.E. Hamidkhanov, H.F. Fazilov and others depend on the names of scientists.

Download 21.8 Kb.

Do'stlaringiz bilan baham:
  1   2   3

Ma'lumotlar bazasi mualliflik huquqi bilan himoyalangan ©fayllar.org 2024
ma'muriyatiga murojaat qiling