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Participants

Mr. Alessio Bruni, Committee against Torture, Geneva

Dr. Eyad El Sarraj, Gaza Community Mental Health Programme, Gaza

Dr. Rosa Garcia-Peltoniemi, The Center for Victims of Torture, Minneapolis,

United States

Dr. Ole Hartling, Danish Medical Association, Copenhagen

Dr. Hans Petter Hougen, Danish Medical Association, Copenhagen

Dr. Delon Human, World Medical Association, Ferney-Voltaire, France

Dr. Dario Lagos, Equipo Argentino de Trabajo e Investigación Psicosocial, Buenos

Aires


Dr. Frank Ulrich Montgomery, German Medical Association, Berlin

Mr. Daniel Prémont, United Nations Voluntary Fund for Victims of Torture, Geneva

Dr. Jagdish C. Sobti, Indian Medical Association, New Delhi

Mr. Trevor Stevens, European Committee for the Prevention of Torture, Strasbourg,

France

Mr. Turgut Tarhanli, International Relations and Human Rights Department,



Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey

Mr. Wilder Taylor, Human Rights Watch, New York

Dr. Joergen Thomsen, International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims,

Copenhagen 

This project was funded with the generous support of the United Nations

Voluntary Fund for Victims of Torture; the Division for Human Rights and

Humanitarian Policy of the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Switzerland; the

Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights of the Organization for Security

and Cooperation in Europe; the Swedish Red Cross, the Human Rights Foundation of

Turkey and Physicians for Human Rights. Additional support was contributed by the

Center for Victims of Torture; the Turkish Medical Association; the International

Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims; Amnesty International Switzerland and the

Christian Association for the Abolition of Torture Switzerland. 

The printing of the revised version of the manual was funded with the financial

support of the European Commission. The work of art displayed on the cover page of

the revised version was donated to the United Nations Voluntary Fund for Victims of

Torture by the Centre for Victims of Torture (CVICT), Nepal.

^


1

INTRODUCTION

Torture is defined in this manual in the words of the United Nations Convention

against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment,

1984:


[T]orture means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or men-

tal, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third

person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person, has com-

mitted or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third per-

son, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is

inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official

or other person acting in an official capacity. It does not include pain or suffering arising

only from, inherent in or incidental to lawful sanctions.

1

 

Torture is a profound concern of the world community. Its purpose is to destroy



deliberately not only the physical and emotional well-being of individuals but also, in

some instances, the dignity and will of entire communities. It concerns all members of

the human family because it impugns the very meaning of our existence and our hopes

for a brighter future.

2

 

Although international human rights and humanitarian law consistently prohibit



torture under any circumstance (see chapter I), torture and ill-treatment are practised in

more than half of the world’s countries.

3, 4

 The striking disparity between the absolute



prohibition of torture and its prevalence in the world today demonstrates the need for

States to identify and implement effective measures to protect individuals from torture

and ill-treatment. This manual was developed to enable States to address one of the

most fundamental concerns in protecting individuals from torture—effective docu-

mentation. Such documentation brings evidence of torture and ill-treatment to light so

that perpetrators may be held accountable for their actions and the interests of justice

may be served. The documentation methods contained in this manual are also appli-

cable to other contexts, including human rights investigations and monitoring, political

asylum evaluations, the defence of individuals who “confess” to crimes during torture

and needs assessments for the care of torture victims, among others. In the case of

health professionals who are coerced into neglect, misrepresentation or falsification of

evidence of torture, this manual also provides an international point of reference for

health professionals and adjudicators alike.

During the past two decades, much has been learned about torture and its conse-

quences, but no international guidelines for documentation were available prior to the

development of this manual. The Istanbul Protocol: Manual on the Effective Investi-



gation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treat-

ment or Punishment  is intended to serve as international guidelines for the assessment

of persons who allege torture and ill-treatment, for investigating cases of alleged tor-

ture and for reporting findings to the judiciary or any other investigative body. This

manual includes principles for the effective investigation and documentation of torture,

1

 Since 1982, the recommendations concerning United Nations assistance to victims of torture made



by the Board of Trustees of the United Nations Voluntary Fund for Victims of Torture to the Secretary-

General of the United Nations, are based on article 1 of the Declaration on the Protection of All Persons

from Being Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, which

provides that “Torture constitutes an aggravated and deliberate form of cruel, inhuman or degrading

treatment or punishment” and that “It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or

incidental to, lawful sanctions to the extent consistent with the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment

of Prisoners”, as well as on all other relevant international instruments.

2

 V. Iacopino, “Treatment of survivors of political torture: commentary”, The Journal of Ambulatory



Care Management, vol. 21 (2) (1998), pp. 5-13.

3

 Amnesty International, Amnesty International Report 1999 (London, AIP, 1999).



4

 M. Basoglu, “Prevention of torture and care of survivors: an integrated approach”, The Journal of



the American Medical Association (JAMA), vol. 270 (1993), pp. 606-611.

^

,



2

and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (see annex I). These

principles outline minimum standards for States in order to ensure the effective docu-

mentation of torture.

5

 The guidelines contained in this manual are not presented as a



fixed protocol. Rather, they represent minimum standards based on the principles and

should be used taking into account available resources. The manual and principles are

the result of three years of analysis, research and drafting, undertaken by more than 75

experts in law, health and human rights, representing 40 organizations or institutions

from 15 countries. The conceptualization and preparation of this manual was a col-

laborative effort between forensic scientists, physicians, psychologists, human-rights

monitors and lawyers working in Chile, Costa Rica, Denmark, France, Germany, India,

Israel, the Netherlands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Turkey, the United King-

dom, the United States of America, and the occupied Palestinian territories.

5

 The Principles on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel,



Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment are annexed to General Assembly resolution 55/89 of

4 December 2000 and to Commission on Human Rights resolution 2000/43 of 20 April 2000, both adopted

without a vote.


3

1. The right to be free from torture is firmly estab-

lished under international law. The Universal Declaration

of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and

Political Rights and the Convention against Torture and

Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punish-

ment all expressly prohibit torture. Similarly, several

regional instruments establish the right to be free from

torture. The American Convention on Human Rights, the

African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the

European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights

and Fundamental Freedoms all contain express prohibi-

tions of torture.

A. International humanitarian law

2. The international treaties governing armed con-

flicts establish international humanitarian law or the law

of war. The prohibition of torture under international

humanitarian law is only a small, but important, part of

the wider protection these treaties provide for all victims

of war. The four Geneva Conventions of 1949 have been

ratified by 188 States. They establish rules for the conduct

of international armed conflict and, especially, for the

treatment of persons who do not, or who no longer, take

part in hostilities, including the wounded, the captured

and civilians. All four conventions prohibit the infliction

of torture and other forms of ill-treatment. Two Protocols

of 1977, additional to the Geneva Conventions, expand

the protection and scope of these conventions. Protocol I

(ratified to date by 153 States) covers international con-

flicts. Protocol II (ratified to date by 145 States) covers

non-international conflicts.

3. More important to the purpose here, however, is

what is known as “Common Article 3”, found in all four

conventions. Common Article 3 applies to armed con-

flicts “not of an international character”, no further defi-

nition being given. It is taken to define core obligations

that must be respected in all armed conflicts and not just

in international wars between countries. This is generally

taken to mean that no matter what the nature of a war or

conflict, certain basic rules cannot be abrogated. The pro-

hibition of torture is one of these and represents an

element common to international humanitarian law and

human rights law.

4. Common Article 3 states:

... the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in

any place whatsoever... violence to life and person, in particular mur-

der of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture; ... outrages

upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading

treatment...  

C

HAPTER


  I

RELEVANT INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STANDARDS

5.  As the Special Rapporteur on the question of tor-

ture, Nigel Rodley, has stated:

The prohibition of torture or other ill-treatment could hardly be for-

mulated in more absolute terms. In the words of the official commen-

tary on the text by the International Committee of the Red Cross

(ICRC), no possible loophole is left; there can be no excuse, no attenu-

ating circumstances.

6

 

6.  A further link between international humanitarian



law and human rights law is found in the preamble to

Protocol II, which itself regulates non-international

armed conflicts (such as fully-fledged civil wars), and

which states that: “… international instruments relating to

human rights offer a basic protection to the human per-

son.”


7

 

B. The United Nations

7.  The United Nations has sought for many years to

develop universally applicable standards to ensure

adequate protection for all persons against torture or

cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. The conventions,

declarations and resolutions adopted by the Member

States of the United Nations clearly state that there may be

no exception to the prohibition of torture and establish

other obligations to ensure protection against such abuses.

Among the most important of these instruments are the

Universal Declaration of Human Rights,

8

 the Interna-



tional Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,

9

 the Stand-



ard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners,

10

 the



Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Being

Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or

Degrading Treatment or Punishment (Declaration on the

Protection against Torture),

11

 the Code of Conduct on



6

 N. Rodley, The Treatment of Prisoners under International Law,

2nd ed. (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1999), p. 58.

7

 Second preambular paragraph of Protocol II (1977), additional to



the Geneva Conventions of 1949.

8

 General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948,



art. 5; see Official Records of the General Assembly, Third Session

(A/810), p. 71.

9

 Entered into force on 23 March 1976; see General Assembly



resolution 2200 A (XXI), of 16 December 1966, annex, art. 7; Official

Records of the General Assembly, Twenty-first Session, Supplement

No. 16 (A/6316), p. 52, and United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 999,

p.171.


10

 Adopted on 30 August 1955 by the First United Nations Congress

on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders.

11

 General Assembly resolution 3452 (XXX) of 9 December 1975,



annex, arts. 2 and 4; see Official Records of the General Assembly,

Thirtieth Session, Supplement No. 34 (A/10034), p. 91.

4

Law Enforcement,

12

 the Principles of Medical Ethics Rel-



evant to the Role of Health Personnel Particularly Physi-

cians, in the Protection of Prisoners and Detainees against

Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treat-

ment or Punishment (Principles of Medical Ethics),

13

 the


Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or

Degrading Treatment or Punishment (Convention against

Torture),

14

 the Body of Principles for the Protection of all



Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment

(Body of Principles on Detention)

15

 and the Basic Princi-



ples for the Treatment of Prisoners.

16

8.  The United Nations Convention against Torture



does not cover pain or suffering arising only from, inher-

ent in or incidental to lawful sanctions.

17

 

9.  Other United Nations human rights bodies and



mechanisms have taken action to develop standards for

the prevention of torture and standards involving the obli-

gation of States to investigate allegations of torture. These

bodies and mechanisms include the Committee against

Torture, the Human Rights Committee, the Commission

on Human Rights, the Special Rapporteur on the question

of torture, the Special Rapporteur on violence against

women and country-specific special rapporteurs ap-

pointed by the Commission on Human Rights.

1. Legal obligations to prevent torture

10.  The international instruments cited above estab-

lish certain obligations that States must respect to ensure

protection against torture. These include:

(a) Taking effective legislative, administrative, judi-

cial or other measures to prevent acts of torture. No

exceptions, including war, may be invoked as justification

for torture (art. 2 of the Convention against Torture and

12

 General Assembly resolution 34/169 of 17 December 1979,



annex, art. 5; see Official Records of the General Assembly, Thirty-

fourth Session, Supplement No. 46 (A/34/46), p. 186.

13

 General Assembly resolution 37/194 of 18 December 1982,



annex, principles 2–5; see Official Records of the General Assembly,

Thirty-seventh Session, Supplement No. 51 (A/37/51), p. 211.

14

 Entered into force on 26 June 1987; see General Assembly



resolution 39/46 of 10 December 1984, annex, art. 2, Official Records

of the General Assembly, Thirty-ninth Session, Supplement No. 51 (A/

39/51), p. 197.

15

 General Assembly resolution 43/173 of 9 December 1988, annex,



principle 6; see Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-third

Session, Supplement No. 49 (A/43/49), p. 298.

16

 General Assembly resolution 45/111 of 14 December 1990, annex,



principle 1; see Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-fifth

Session, Supplement No. 49 (A/45/49), p. 200.

17

 For an interpretation of what constitutes “lawful sanctions”, see



the report of the Special Rapporteur on torture to the fifty-third session

of the Commission on Human Rights (E/CN.4/1997/7, paras. 3-11), in

which the Special Rapporteur expressed the view that the

administration of punishments such as stoning to death, flogging and

amputation cannot be deemed lawful simply because the punishment

has been authorized in a procedurally legitimate manner. The

interpretation put forward by the Special Rapporteur, which is

consistent with the positions of the Human Rights Committee and other

United Nations mechanisms, was endorsed by resolution 1998/38 of the

Commission on Human Rights, which “[r]eminds Governments that

corporal punishment can amount to cruel, inhuman or degrading

treatment or even to torture”.

art. 3 of the Declaration on the Protection against Tor-

ture);


(b) Not expelling, returning (refouler) or extraditing a

person to a country when there are substantial grounds for

believing he or she would be tortured (art. 3 of the Con-

vention against Torture);

(c) Criminalization of acts of torture, including com-

plicity or participation therein (art. 4 of the Convention

against Torture, principle 7 of the Body of Principles on

Detention, art. 7 of the Declaration on the Protection

against Torture and paras. 31-33 of the Standard Mini-

mum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners);

(d) Undertaking to make torture an extraditable

offence and assisting other States parties in connection

with criminal proceedings brought in respect of torture

(arts. 8 and 9 of the Convention against Torture); 

(e) Limiting the use of incommunicado detention;

ensuring that detainees are held in places officially recog-

nized as places of detention; ensuring the names of per-

sons responsible for their detention are kept in registers

readily available and accessible to those concerned,

including relatives and friends; recording the time and

place of all interrogations, together with the names of

those present; and granting physicians, lawyers and

family members access to detainees (art. 11 of the Con-

vention against Torture; principles 11-13, 15-19 and 23 of

the Body of Principles on Detention; paras. 7, 22 and 37

of the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of

Prisoners);

(f) Ensuring that education and information regarding

the prohibition of torture is included in the training of law

enforcement personnel (civil and military), medical per-

sonnel, public officials and other appropriate persons

(art. 10 of the Convention against Torture, art. 5 of the

Declaration on the Protection against Torture, para. 54 of

the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of

Prisoners);

(g) Ensuring that any statement that is established to

have been made as a result of torture shall not be invoked

as evidence in any proceedings, except against a person

accused of torture as evidence that the statement was

made (art. 15 of the Convention against Torture, art. 12 of

the Declaration on the Protection against Torture);

(h) Ensuring that the competent authorities undertake

a prompt and impartial investigation, whenever there are

reasonable grounds to believe that torture has been

committed (art. 12 of the Convention against Torture,

principles 33 and 34 of the Body of Principles on

Detention, art. 9 of the Declaration on the Protection

against Torture);

(i) Ensuring that victims of torture have the right to

redress and adequate compensation (arts. 13 and 14 of the

Convention against Torture, art. 11 of the Declaration on

the Protection against Torture, paras. 35 and 36 of the

Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners);

(j) Ensuring that the alleged offender or offenders is

subject to criminal proceedings if an investigation estab-

lishes that an act of torture appears to have been commit-



5

ted. If an allegation of other forms of cruel, inhuman or

degrading treatment or punishment is considered to be

well founded, the alleged offender or offenders shall be

subject to criminal, disciplinary or other appropriate pro-

ceedings (art. 7 of the Convention against Torture, art. 10

of the Declaration on the Protection against Torture).

2. United Nations bodies and mechanisms

(a) Committee against Torture

11.  The Committee against Torture monitors imple-

mentation of the Convention against Torture and Other

Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.

The Committee consists of 10 experts appointed because

of their “high moral standing and recognized competence

in the field of human rights”. Under article 19 of the Con-

vention against Torture, the States parties submit to the

Committee, through the Secretary-General, reports on the

measures they have taken to give effect to their undertak-

ings under the Convention. The Committee examines

how the provisions of the Convention have been incorpo-

rated into domestic law and monitors how this functions

in practice. Each report is considered by the Committee,

which may make general comments and recommenda-

tions and include this information in its annual report to

the States parties and to the General Assembly. These pro-

cedures take place in public meetings.

12.  Under article 20 of the Convention against Tor-

ture, if the Committee receives reliable information that

appears to contain well-founded indications that torture is

being systematically practised in the territory of a State

party, the Committee must invite that State party to co-

operate in the examination of the information and, to this

end, to submit observations with regard to the information

concerned. The Committee may, if it decides that this is

warranted, designate one or more of its members to make

a confidential inquiry and to report to the Committee

urgently. In agreement with that State party, that inquiry

may include a visit to its territory. After examining the

findings of its member or members, the Committee trans-

mits these findings to the State party concerned together

with any comments or suggestions that seem appropriate

in view of the situation. All the proceedings of the Com-

mittee under article 20 are confidential, and, at all stages

of the proceedings, the cooperation of the State party is

sought. After completion of these proceedings, the Com-

mittee may, after consultations with the State party con-

cerned, decide to include a summary account of the

results of the proceedings in its annual report to the other

States parties and to the General Assembly.

18

13.  Under article 22 of the Convention against Tor-



ture, a State party may at any time recognize the compe-

tence of the Committee to receive and consider individual

complaints from or on behalf of individuals subject to its

jurisdiction who claim to be victims of a violation by a

State party of the provisions of the Convention against

Torture. The Committee then considers these communica-

tions confidentially and shall forward its view to the State

18

 It should be pointed out, however, that application of article 20 can



be limited because of a reservation by a State party, in which case

article 20 is not applicable.

party concerned and to the individual. Only 39 of the 112

States parties that have ratified the Convention have also

recognized the applicability of article 22.

14.  Among the concerns addressed by the Commit-

tee in its annual reports to the General Assembly is the

necessity of States parties to comply with articles 12

and 13 on the Convention against Torture to ensure that

prompt and impartial investigations of all complaints of

torture are undertaken. For example, the Committee has

stated that it considers a delay of 15 months in investigat-

ing allegations of torture to be unreasonably long and not

in compliance with article 12.

19

 The Committee has also



noted that article 13 does not require a formal submission

of a complaint of torture, but that “[i]t is sufficient for tor-

ture only to have been alleged by the victim for [a State

Party] to be under an obligation promptly and impartially

to examine the allegation”.

20

 



(b) Human Rights Committee

15.  The Human Rights Committee was established

pursuant to article 28 of the International Covenant on

Civil and Political Rights and the requirement to monitor

implementation of the Covenant in the States parties. The

Committee is composed of 18 independent experts who

are expected to be persons of high moral character and of

recognized competence in the field of human rights.

16.  States parties to the Covenant must submit

reports every five years on the measures they have

adopted to give effect to the rights recognized in the Cov-

enant and on progress made in the enjoyment of those

rights. The Human Rights Committee examines the

reports through a dialogue with representatives of the

State party whose report is under consideration. The

Committee then adopts concluding observations summa-

rizing its main concerns and making appropriate sugges-

tions and recommendations to the State party. The Com-

mittee also prepares general comments interpreting

specific articles of the Covenant to guide States parties in

their reporting, as well as their implementation of the

Covenant’s provisions. In one such general comment, the

Committee undertook to clarify article 7 of the Interna-

tional Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which

states that no one shall be subject to torture or to cruel,

inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. In the

general comments on article 7 of the Covenant in the

report of the Committee, it specifically noted that prohib-

iting torture or making it a crime was not sufficient imple-

mentation of article 7.

21

 The Committee stated: “... States



must ensure an effective protection through some machin-

ery of control. Complaints about ill-treatment must be

investigated effectively by competent authorities.”

17.  On 10 April 1992, the Committee adopted new

general comments on article 7, further developing the pre-

vious comments. The Committee reinforced its reading of

article 7 by stating that “[c]omplaints must be investi-

19

 See Communication 8/1991, para. 185, Report of the Committee



against Torture to the General Assembly (A/49/44) of 12 June 1994.

20

 See Communication 6/1990, para. 10.4, Report of the Committee



against Torture to the General Assembly (A/50/44) of 26 July 1995.

21

 United Nations, document A/37/40 (1982).



6

gated promptly and impartially by competent authorities

so as to make the remedy effective”. Where a State has

ratified the first Optional Protocol to the International

Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, an individual may

submit a communication to the Committee complaining

that his rights under the Covenant have been violated. If

found admissible, the Committee issues a decision on the

merits, which is made public in its annual report.

(c) Commission on Human Rights

18. The Commission on Human Rights is the pri-

mary human rights body of the United Nations. It is com-

posed of 53 Member States elected by the Economic and

Social Council for three-year terms. The Commission

meets annually for six weeks in Geneva to act on human

rights issues. The Commission may initiate studies and

fact-finding missions, draft conventions and declarations

for approval by higher United Nations bodies and discuss

specific human rights violations in public or private ses-

sions. On 6 June 1967, the Economic and Social Council,

in resolution 1235, authorized the Commission to exam-

ine allegations of gross violations of human rights and to

“make a thorough study of situations which reveal a

consistent pattern of violations of human rights”.

22

 Under


this mandate, the Commission has, among other pro-

cedures, adopted resolutions expressing concern about

human rights violations and has appointed special rappor-

teurs to address human rights violations falling under a

particular theme. The Commission has also adopted reso-

lutions regarding torture and other cruel, inhuman or

degrading treatment or punishment. In its resolution

1998/38, the Commission stressed that “all allegations of

torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or pun-

ishment should be promptly and impartially examined by

the competent national authority”.

(d) Special Rapporteur on the question of torture 

19. In 1985, the Commission decided, in resolution

1985/33, to appoint a Special Rapporteur on the question

of torture. The Special Rapporteur is charged with seek-

ing and receiving credible and reliable information on

questions relevant to torture and to respond to that infor-

mation without delay. The Commission has continued to

renew the Special Rapporteur’s mandate in subsequent

resolutions.

20.  The Special Rapporteur’s authority to monitor

extends to all Member States of the United Nations and to

all States with observer status, regardless of the State’s

ratification of the Convention against Torture. The Spe-

cial Rapporteur establishes contact with Governments,

asks them for information on legislative and administra-

tive measures taken to prevent torture, requests them to

remedy any consequences and asks them to respond to

information alleging the actual occurrence of torture. The

Special Rapporteur also receives requests for urgent

action, which he or she brings to the attention of the Gov-

ernments concerned in order to ensure protection of an

individual’s right to physical and mental integrity. In addi-

tion, the Special Rapporteur holds consultations with gov-

22

 Ibid., E/4393.



ernment representatives who wish to meet with him or her

and, in accordance with the position’s mandate, makes in



situ visits to some parts of the world. The Special Rappor-

teur submits reports to the Commission on Human Rights

and to the General Assembly. These reports describe

actions that the Special Rapporteur has taken under his or

her mandate and persistently draw attention to the impor-

tance of prompt investigation of torture allegations. In the

Report of the Special Rapporteur on the question of tor-

ture of 12 January 1995, the Special Rapporteur, Nigel

Rodley, made a series of recommendations. In para-

graph 926 (g) of the report, he stated:

When a detainee or relative or lawyer lodges a torture complaint, an

inquiry should always take place... Independent national authorities,

such as a national commission or ombudsman with investigatory and/

or prosecutorial powers, should be established to receive and to inves-

tigate complaints. Complaints about torture should be dealt with im-

mediately and should be investigated by an independent authority with

no relation to that which is investigating or prosecuting the case against

the alleged victim.

23

21.  The Special Rapporteur emphasized this recom-



mendation in his report of 9 January 1996.

24

 Discussing



his concern about torture practices, the Special Rappor-

teur pointed out in paragraph 136 that “both under general

international law and under the Convention against Tor-

ture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or

Punishment, States are obliged to investigate allegations

of torture”.

(e) Special Rapporteur on violence against women

22.  The Special Rapporteur on violence against

women was established in 1994 by resolution 1994/45 of

the Commission on Human Rights and that mandate was

renewed by resolution 1997/44. The Special Rapporteur

has established procedures to seek clarification and infor-

mation from Governments, in a humanitarian spirit, on

specific cases of alleged violence in order to identify and

investigate specific situations and allegations of violence

against women in any country. These communications

may concern one or more individuals identified by name

or information of a more general nature relating to a pre-

vailing situation condoning or perpetrating violence

against women. The definition of gender-based violence

against women used by the Special Rapporteur is taken

from the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence

against Women, adopted by the General Assembly in

resolution 48/104 of 20 December 1993. Urgent appeals

may be sent by the Special Rapporteur in cases of gender-

based violence against women that involve or may

involve an imminent threat or fear of threat to the right to

life or physical integrity of a person. The Special Rappor-

teur urges the competent national authorities not only to

provide comprehensive information on the case but also

to carry out an independent and impartial investigation

concerning the case transmitted and to take immediate

action to ensure that no further violation of the human

rights of women occur.

23

 Ibid., E/CN.4/1995/34.



24

 Ibid., E/CN.4/1996/35.



7

23.  The Special Rapporteur reports annually to the

Commission on Human Rights on communications sent

to Governments and on replies received by him or her. On

the basis of information received from Governments and

other reliable sources, the Special Rapporteur makes rec-

ommendations to the Governments concerned with a

view to finding durable solutions to the elimination of

violence against women in any country. The Special Rap-

porteur may send follow-up communications to Govern-

ments when no replies have been received or when insuf-

ficient information has been provided. Should a particular

situation of violence against women in any given country

persist and information received by the Special Rappor-

teur indicate that no measures are or have been taken by a

Government to ensure the protection of the human rights

of women, the Special Rapporteur may consider the pos-

sibility of seeking permission from the Government con-

cerned to visit that country in order to carry out an on-site

fact-finding mission.

(f) United Nations Voluntary Fund for Victims of Torture

24.  The physical and psychological after-effects of

torture can be devastating and last for years, affecting not

only the victims but also members of their families.

Assistance in recovering from the trauma suffered can be

obtained from organizations that specialize in assisting

victims of torture. In December 1981, the General Assem-

bly established the United Nations Voluntary Fund for

Victims of Torture to receive voluntary contributions for

distribution to non-governmental organizations (NGOs)

that provide psychological, medical, social, economic,

legal and other forms of humanitarian assistance to vic-

tims of torture and members of their families. Depending

on the voluntary contributions available, the Fund may

finance about 200 NGO projects assisting about 80,000

victims of torture and members of their families in about

80 countries worldwide. The Fund financed the drafting

and translation of the present manual and recommended

its publication in the Professional Training Series of the

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for

Human Rights, following a recommendation of its Board

of Trustees, which subsidizes a limited number of projects

to train health professionals and others on how to provide

specialized assistance to victims of torture.




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