Beat generation. The main representative plan: Introduction

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Chapter 1. Beat generation. The main representative
1.1 Significant places
1.2 Internal criticism
Chapter 2. The main representative
2.1 The Beat Generation was a literary subculture movement started
List of literature
In our country, every year several areas of science are selected and developed with special attention. This year, physics and foreign languages ​​have been identified as such priority areas.
Uzbekistan's policy of openness, its active entry into the world market, and the expansion of international cooperation in all fields increase the need to know foreign languages.
Today, teaching is conducted in foreign languages ​​in 25 higher educational institutions of our country. In 2016, they were only 7. The number of graduates who received an international language certificate has increased 10 times in the last 3 years.
This year, 350 students were awarded scholarships to study at prestigious foreign universities through the "El-Yurt Umid" fund. This is 5 times more than in previous years1.
However, the situation on the ground is not compatible with the intended big plans. In particular, more than 2,000 foreign language teacher positions remain vacant in the education system. The quality of foreign language teaching in 1,400 schools is completely unsatisfactory. Only 4% of teachers in this system have national and international language certificates. There are no teachers with such a certificate in the cities of Khanabad and Kuvasoi, Zafarabad, Mirishkor, Tortkol, Sherabad and Uzun districts. 49 percent of foreign language teachers in schools could not pass the test.
At the meeting, problems in the system were thoroughly analyzed and priority tasks were determined.
- The time has come to establish a new system for teaching foreign languages ​​in our country, which will be a solid foundation for the future. Since we have set ourselves the goal of building a competitive country, from now on, graduates of schools, lyceums, colleges and universities must have a perfect knowledge of at least 2 foreign languages. This strict requirement should become the main criterion for the activity of the head of every educational institution, - said Shavkat Mirziyoyev2.The Beat Generation was a literary subculture movement started by a group of authors whose work explored and influenced American culture and politics in the post-war era. The bulk of their work was published and popularized by Silent Generationers in the 1950s, better known as Beatniks. The central elements of Beat culture are the rejection of standard narrative values, making a spiritual quest, the exploration of American and Eastern religions, the rejection of economic materialism, explicit portrayals of the human condition, experimentation with psychedelic drugs, and sexual liberation and exploration.
Allen Ginsberg's Howl (1956), William S. Burroughs' Naked Lunch (1959), and Jack Kerouac's On the Road (1957) are among the best known examples of Beat literature. Both Howl and Naked Lunch were the focus of obscenity trials that ultimately helped to liberalize publishing in the United States. The members of the Beat Generation developed a reputation as new bohemian hedonists, who celebrated non-conformity and spontaneous creativity.
The core group of Beat Generation authors—Herbert Huncke, Ginsberg, Burroughs, Lucien Carr, and Kerouac—met in 1944 in and around the Columbia University campus in New York City. Later, in the mid-1950s, the central figures, with the exception of Burroughs and Carr, ended up together in San Francisco, where they met and became friends of figures associated with the San Francisco Renaissance.
In the 1950s, a Beatnik subculture formed around the literary movement, although this was often viewed critically by major authors of the Beat movement. In the 1960s, elements of the expanding Beat movement were incorporated into the hippie and larger counterculture movements. Neal Cassady, as the driver for Ken Kesey's bus Furthur, was the primary bridge between these two generations.
Although Kerouac introduced the phrase "Beat Generation" in 1948 to characterize a perceived underground, anti-conformist youth movement in New York, fellow poet Herbert Huncke is credited with first using the word "beat". The name arose in a conversation with writer John Clellon Holmes. Kerouac allows that it was Huncke, a street hustler, who originally used the phrase "beat", in an earlier discussion with him. The adjective "beat" could colloquially mean "tired" or "beaten down" within the African-American community of the period and had developed out of the image "beat to his socks", but Kerouac appropriated the image and altered the meaning to include the connotations "upbeat", "beatific", and the musical association of being "on the beat", and "the Beat to keep" from the Beat Generation poem3.

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