Cultural heritage tourism or just heritage tourism or diaspora tourism


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Cultural heritage tourism (or just heritage tourism or diaspora tourism) is a branch oftourism oriented towards the cultural heritageof the location where tourism is occurring.

The National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States defines heritage tourism as "traveling to experience the places, artifactsand activities that authentically represent the stories and people of the past",[1] and "heritage tourism can include cultural, historic and natural resources".[1]


Culture


Culture has always been a major part of travel, as the development of the Grand Tour from the 16th century onwards attests. In the 20th century, some people have claimed, culture ceased to be the objective of tourism; tourism is now culture. Cultural attractions play an important role in tourism at all levels, from the global highlights of world culture to attractions that underpin local identities.[2]

Culture, heritage and the arts have long contributed to appeal of tourist destination. However, in recent years 'culture' has been rediscovered as an important marketing tool to attract those travellers with special interests in heritage and arts.[2]

According to the Hollinshead, cultural heritage tourism defines as cultural heritage tourism is the fastest growing segment of the tourism industry because there is a trend toward an increase specialization among tourists. This trend is evident in the rise in the volume of tourists who seek adventure, culture, history,archaeology and interaction with local people.

Cultural heritage tourism is important for various reasons; it has a positive economic and social impact, it establishes and reinforces identity, it helps preserve the cultural heritage, with culture as an instrument it facilitates harmony and understanding among people, it supports culture and helps renew tourism.[2] As Benjamin Porter and Noel B. Salazar have ethnographically documented, however, cultural heritage tourism can also create tensions and even conflict between the different stakeholders involved.[3]

Cultural heritage tourism has a number of objectives that must be met within the context of sustainable development such as; the conservation of cultural resources, accurate interpretation of resources, authentic visitors experience, and the stimulation of the earned revenues of cultural resources. We can see, therefore, that cultural heritage tourism is not only concerned with identification, management and protection of the heritage values but it must also be involved in understanding the impact of tourism on communities and regions, achieving economic and social benefits, providing financial resources for protection, as well as marketing and promotion. (J. M. Fladmark, 1994)

Heritage tourism involves visiting historical or industrial sites that may include old canals,railways, battlegrounds, military sites, etc. The overall purpose is to gain an appreciation of the past. It also refers to the marketing of a location to members of a diaspora who have distant family roots there.


ImmigrationEdit


Decolonization and immigration form the major background of much contemporary heritage tourism. Falling travel costs have also made heritage tourism possible for more people.[4]

Another possible form involves religious travel or pilgrimages. Many Catholics from around the world come to the Vatican and other sites such as Lourdes or FátimaIslamcommands its followers to take the hajj toMecca, thus differentiating it somewhat from tourism in the usual sense, though the trip can also be a culturally important event for the pilgrim.[5]

Heritage tourism can also be attributed to historical events that have been dramatised to make them more entertaining. For example, a historical tour of a town or city using a theme such as ghosts or Vikings. Heritage tourism focuses on certain historical events, rather than presenting a balanced view of that historical period. Its aim may not always be the presentation of accurate historical facts, as opposed to economically developing the site and surrounding area. As a result, heritage tourism can be seen as a blend of education, entertainment, preservation and profit.[6]

Indigenous peoplesEdit


Anthropology and Ethnology were two major disciplines interested by the life of aborigines, their customs and political structures.[7]Although, the firsts fieldworkers were not interested in expanding the colonization of main European powers, the fact was that their notes, books and field-work notes were employed by colonial officials to understand the aboriginal mind.[8] From that moment on, anthropology developed a strange fascination for the Other's culture.[9] The concepts of heritage and colonization were inextricably intertwined.[10]

 Play media

Community tourism in Sierra Leone: The story of a community in Sierra Leone trying to manage tourism in a socially responsible manner[11]

Another problem with heritage tourism is the effect on indigenous peoples whose land and culture is being visited by tourists. If the indigenous people are not a part of the majority, or ruling power in the country, they may not benefit from the tourism as greatly as they should. For example, in Mexico tourism has increased because of the predicted end of the Maya Calendar. However, the indigenous Maya are not benefitting from the increased traffic through the ruins and other cultural landmarks.[12]

Cultural tourism


Main article: Cultural tourism

Promotion and facilitation


Heritage tourism is supported by municipalities through promotion and tourist information in many countries and their administrative units, e.g. cities as PolishBydgoszcz[13] or Warsaw.[14]

There are also many forms of presenting selected tourist topics in a harmonized way, for instance European Route of Brick Gothic[15] and many others (Cultural Route of the Council of Europe).



Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, thebusiness of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.[2] The World Tourism Organization defines tourism more generally, in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure and not less than 24 hours, business and other purposes".[3]

Tourism can be domestic (within the traveller's own country) or international, and international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments.



Tourism numbers declined as a result of a strong economic slowdown (the late-2000s recession) between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, and in consequence of the outbreak of the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus,[4][5] but slowly recovered. Globally, international tourism receipts (the travel item in balance of payments) grew to US$1.03trillion (€740 billion) in 2005, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010.[6]International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012,[7] emerging source marketssuch as ChinaRussia, and Brazil had significantly increased their spending over the previous decade.[8] The ITB Berlin is the world's leading tourism trade-fair.[9][better source needed] Global tourism accounts for c. 8% of global greenhouse-gasemissions.[10]

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