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  The current debate over numerical identification systems and other potential developments in taxonomy are reviewed 
in J.M. Guerra-Garcia, F. Espinosa, and J.C. Garcia-Gomez, “Trends in taxonomy today: An overview about the main 
topics in taxonomy,” Zoologica Baetica 19 (2008), pp.15-49, and in Hong Cui, “Converting taxonomic descriptions to new 
digital formats,” Biodiversity Informatics 5 (2008), pp. 20-40.
  See also Renat Rashitovich, “Multicellular Organisms as Information-Computer Systems,” Interesting Stories… 11 
(2001), pp. 73-137.

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August 2013
Results of  Contest for Best Article Published in Volume 9 of  
“Interesting Stories About the Activities and People of  the AP 
System of  Russia and the Soviet Union”
Yu.G. Suchkov (pp. 280-81)
The editors of  Interesting Stories... honor A.I. Shelokhovich for his article “The Road Home (Reminiscences)” in 
Volume 9 (pages pp. 181-92).
Forgotten Photographs
M.I. Levi and Yu.G. Suchkov (pp. 282-99). 17 photographs.
This section features group and individual portraits of  AP system personnel. One photograph depicts the Kok-Kabak 
outpost of  the Aral Sea AP Station.
(pp. 300-431)
This section contains bibliographies for I.V. Domaradsky (337 works), M.I. Levi (399), N.N. Basova (201), and 
Yu.G. Suchkov (193).
Index of  Names in Volume 10
(pp. 432-38)
Not included in this paper.

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Stories of  the Soviet Anti-Plague System
Volume 11 (2001)
Moisey Iosifovich Levi (p. 3)
Introduction to the eleventh volume of  the Interesting Stories… series.
Full translation:
Time moves relentlessly in one direction, and its path is paved with the fates of  individuals and 
The AP system of  our country belongs to the twentieth century; it was founded at the dawn 
of  the century and is disappearing now as the sun sets.
The task of  Interesting Stories… is to describe this unique phenomenon. We have done our best 
to accomplish this, traveling the path of  Time and collecting the fates of  people who would 
otherwise be forgotten. Many were not accounted for, and now there is no hope of  finding 
them with so many years gone by and with no witnesses remaining. However, shining through 
our articles is the edifice of  the AP system and, emblazoned on it, the faces of  its founders. It 
is our fault that our Interesting Stories… do not illustrate the roles of  many people, among them 
some of  the most important architects of  the service. But as the saying goes, “C’est la vie.
The publishing of  Interesting Stories… began a new genre of  scientific literature that we called 
“parallel scientific literature,” somewhere between “purely” scientific and popular literature. 
Stellar examples of  the latter are Paul de Kruif ’s Microbe  Hunters, and [Daniil Semenovich] 
Danin’s books on Rutherford and Bohr. However, “parallel scientific literature” is a different 
literature. These are works that give an accessible, but not simplified, exposition of  scientific 
achievements set against the details of  life that show the atmosphere of  the time, personality 
conflicts, doubts, and other things.
It is mainly this type of  articles that we printed earlier in Interesting Stories…, mixing them with 
historical stories about AP workers. This is the mainstay of  the present volume and probably 
will be for any future volumes of  Stories… if  they are published.
It  must  be  admitted  that  scientific  and  technical  innovations  have  an  enormous  influence 
on human life and it is now time for scientists to stop hiding behind the fence of  scientific 
literature. It is all the more so, since society creates the conditions, be they bad or good, in 
which scientists and engineers work, and the success of  their work depends on the attitude of  
the public.
M.I. Levi

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August 2013
Progress Toward Controlled Antibiotic Therapy of  Patients 
with Purulent Septic Infections
Mikhail Iosifovich Levi (pp. 4-72). One photograph (portrait of  author), 13 figures, four tables.
This scientific chapter discusses the theoretical bases for developing the principles of  controlled direct antibiotic therapy 
for purulent septic infections. It includes a narrative of  the author’s difficulties gaining acceptance for the idea from 
the medical establishment. Also, it summarizes the results of  a 2001 scientific symposium on the subject. Seventeen 
publications on the subject by the author’s organization, the Test Laboratory Center of  Moscow Municipal Center for 
Disinfection, are listed. Author M.I. Levi won a prize posthumously for writing the best chapter of  volume 11.
Multicellular Organisms as Information-Computer Systems
Renat Rashitovich Ibadulin (pp. 73-137). 27 references.
This chapter discusses biological systems in terms of  information system concepts, expanding upon the author’s previous 
article “Life and the Cell” in volume 10 (2000, pp. 197-279).
Little-Known Plague Epidemic in Primorsk Region and 
Vladivostok in 1921 and Plague in Odessa in 1910
Yury Grigorevich Suchkov (pp. 138-219). Seven figures, 10 photographs, 21 tables, reproductions of  title 
pages of  the reviewed books.
This chapter contains reviews of  four books published in the early twentieth century about pneumonic plague epidemic in 
Russian Far East in 1921 and about the 1910 plague outbreak in Odessa. Includes book excerpts, summaries, and 
Suchkov identifies Plague Epidemic in Primorsk Region in 1921 edited by P.V. Zakharov (Vladivostok, 
1922) as the only detailed account of  a pneumonic plague epidemic in a large Russian city. He reviews 
the origins and course of  the epidemic, the AP organizations’ activities during the epidemic, the 
epidemic control measures taken, and financial aspects of  the control work. The mortality rate in 
Vladivostok peaked during April and May, with a few fatalities continuing to occur through mid-
September. Suchkov describes the circumstances in which several medical workers died of  plague 
during the epidemic.
Suchkov  also  reviews  three  books  about  the  1910  Odessa  plague  outbreak.  He  summarizes  the 
conditions in which the epidemic began, describes the course of  the outbreak, and recounts the 
  See Interesting Stories… 12.2 (2002), pp. 162-63.

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Stories of  the Soviet Anti-Plague System
control measures that AP workers implemented. The three books included are Epidemics  of   Plague 
and Cholera in 1910 in Odessa, edited by I.I. Kayantsina (1911); Plague in Odessa in 1910, edited by L.N. 
Malinovsky, D.K. Zabolotny, and P.N. Bulatov (1912); and Plague by D.K. Zabolotny (1907).
Bioterrorism—A Real Threat
L.A. Melnikov (pp. 220-23). Seven references.
This chapter discusses the bioterrorism threats and possible prevention measures that were under discussion in the United 
States. The author recommends that an effective defense system be created, one part of  which would be an epidemic 
response unit comprised of  high-risk infection specialists.
Several Considerations on the Threat of  Bioterrorism
Igor Valerianovich Domaradsky (pp. 224-31)
This chapter contains the text of  a memorandum, “On the threat of  bioterrorism,” that the author prepared upon the 
request of  members of  the United States Congress. It assesses bioterrorism risks and recommends several preventative 
measures that should be taken on the international level. 
Domaradsky outlines the fundamentals of  several topics, including the types of  biological agents that 
pose significant security threats (bacteria, viruses, and toxins), the possibilities and limitations of  using 
biological agents, and sources of  biological agents. The memorandum then describes the methods 
of  using biological agents in weaponized forms, considerations for diagnosing the diseases that they 
cause,  possible  effects  of   biological  terrorist  attacks,  and  the  difficulties  that  terrorists  seeking  to 
effectively deploy biological weapons would face. Lastly, the author prioritizes preventive measures 
that governments could implement to respond to these threats.
Geographic Information Systems in Epidemiology: Possibilities 
of  Counteracting Terrorism
B.V. Boev (pp. 232-54). One table, one figure.
This chapter considers the potential uses of  geographic information systems (GIS) in predicting impacts of  and responses 
to biological terrorist attacks. It also contains an overview of  current uses of  GIS in epidemiology. The author argues 
that anti-terrorism issues raised in the United States also are of  primary importance for Russia.

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August 2013
Mikhail Trofimovich Titenko: Military Physician and Plague 
Scientist, a Person Who Served the Public
Svetlana Aleksandrovna Lebedeva (pp. 255-60). Two photographs (of  the author and Titenko).
This chapter contains a biographical sketch of  M.T. Titenko, a military physician and researcher.
Titenko served as a military physician during World War II and then became a researcher at the 
USSR Ministry of  Defense Research Institute, specializing in the prevention of  infectious diseases. 
He was deputy director for science at Rostov-on-Don AP Institute from 1967 through 1986. Titenko 
established an aerosol laboratory at the institute in 1967 to study treatment and prevention of  high-
risk aerosol infections.
  He was active in training physicians and establishing procedures for the AP 
N.K. Vereninova: A Leading Specialist in High-Risk Infections 
(100th Anniversary of  Her Birth)
N.V. Uryupina and L.F. Zykin (pp. 261-67). Two photographs. List of  11 publications by Vereninova.
This chapter is a biographical sketch of  Natalya Konstantinovna Vereninova, a physician and scientist of  the early 
Soviet AP system. 
Vereninova graduated from Saratov State University Faculty of  Medicine in 1924, then worked as a 
physician in the southern Urals, Uzbekistan, and Mordovia. She joined the State Regional Institute of  
Microbiology and Epidemiology of  Southeast Soviet Union (later Mikrob), where she held various 
positions, including deputy director for science. Vereninova was involved in the production of  
bacterial preparations; did field research and epidemic control of  tularemia, malaria, and cholera; and 
studied bacteriophages. She was sent to Stalingrad to deal with epidemics that arose after the Battle of  
Stalingrad ended in February 1943. Vereninova prepared a doctoral dissertation on tularemia, but died 
of  heart disease in 1959 before completing her defense.
Mariya Semenovna Drozhevkina (1912-92)
Yu.M. Lomov, T.A. Kudryakova (pp. 268-71)
This chapter is a biographical sketch of  M.S. Drozhevkina, an AP system researcher on plague, cholera, tularemia, 
and brucellosis, and who held leadership positions in various laboratories.
  These activities coincide with the research of  methods to defend the country against biological attacks, which the 
2nd Directorate of  the USSR MOH is known to have commissioned at the Rostov AP Institute during this period. Such 
projects contributed to Problem 5’s research agenda. See Leitenberg and Zilinskas, The Soviet Biological Weapons Program
pp. 138-52.

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Stories of  the Soviet Anti-Plague System
Drozhevkina graduated from Rostov-on-Don Medical Institute in 1935 and served as laboratory chief  
at several AP divisions. After 1943, she occupied various positions at Rostov-on-Don AP Institute, 
including director of  scientific work, director of  the Phage Genetics Laboratory, and director of  the 
Cholera Diagnostic Phage Laboratory. Drozhevkina published over 200 scientific works and made 
many important contributions to the study of  plague, cholera, tularemia, and brucellosis. She defended 
her doctoral dissertation on “Brucellosis bacteriophage and prospects for using it” in 1958.
Continuing the Traditions of  the Profession
G.I. Lyamkin and Yury Grigorevich Suchkov (pp. 272-78). Four photographs.
This chapter contains biographical sketches of  Ivan Fedorovich Taran and his son Vladimir, both scientists who pursued 
careers in the AP system.
Ivan graduated from the Stavropol Medical Institute in 1951 and then joined the Stavropol AP Institute, 
where he developed a brucellosis vaccine. He was appointed chief  of  the brucellosis laboratory in 1973 
and, in 1983, was promoted to director of  the institute, a position he held until 1989. His son, Vladimir 
Ivanovich Taran, also joined the AP service and worked in a specialized anti-epidemic brigade. He was 
killed in a terrorist attack in June 2000 while conducting epidemic control work in Chechnya.
In the Beginning: Contribution of  Rostov-on-Don AP Institute 
to the Training of  High-Risk Infection Specialists
Veronika Semenovna Uraleva (pp. 279-337). Three tables, nine photographs.
This chapter details the training for AP system specialists at the Rostov-on-Don AP Institute. It describes how training 
evolved over time beginning in 1934, when the institute was founded. Initially, specialized courses were offered only for 
physicians and biologists, but eligibility requirements were expanded in 1966.
Don’t Lie, People!
P.L. Burgasov (pp. 338-40)
This chapter contains an article that originally appeared in Meditsinskaya Gazeta (Medical Newspaper) on December 
22, 2000. The author disputes the contents of  a television program that dealt with the 1970 cholera outbreak in 
Astrakhan, particularly the declarations that corpses of  cholera victims were lying in the streets of  Odessa, Rostov-on-
Don, and Astrakhan, and that the population suffered from hunger. He raises issues concerning the participation of  
I.V. Domaradsky in the television show.
  As this chapter and the next demonstrate, there was serious enmity between Burgasov and Domaradsky. One reason 
was that Burgasov was an apologist for the Soviet offensive BW program, which was revealed to the Russian public for 
the first time in 1995 by Domaradsky.

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August 2013
General Burgasov, It’s Time To Think About Your Soul!
Igor Valerianovich Domaradsky (pp. 341-42)
This chapter contains a rebuttal to the criticism of  the television show on the 1970 cholera outbreak in Astrakhan 
included in “Don’t Lie, People!” by P.L Burgasov (pp. 338-40).
Domaradsky argues Burgasov has no grounds to criticize the program on the basis that the former 
was more involved in the crisis than the latter.
Opinions of  Other Participants in the Broadcast
Yury Grigorevich Suchkov and R.S. Zotova (pp. 343-45). One table.
This chapter contains a rebuttal to the criticism of  the television show on the 1970 cholera outbreak in Astrakhan 
included in “Don’t Lie, People!” by P.L Burgasov (pp. 338-40).
Suchkov and Zotova describe their participation in the television show and confirm their support of  
its content, expressing surprise at the vehemence of  Burgasov’s criticism.
Igor Valerianovich Domaradsky, On His 75th Birthday
Yury Grigorevich Suchkov (pp. 346-53). One photograph of  Domaradsky.
This chapter contains a biographical sketch of  I.V. Domaradsky, former director of  two AP Institutes in Irkutsk, 
researcher in weaponization projects, and a one-time visitor to the United States.
Domaradsky graduated from Saratov Medical Institute in 1947. After completing his graduate studies, 
he worked at Mikrob in Saratov, served as director of  the Scientific Research AP Institute of  Siberia 
and the Far East in Irkutsk from 1957 to 1964, served as director of  the Rostov-on-Don AP Institute 
from 1964 to 1973, and finally moved to Moscow to join the USSR Glavmikrobioprom system. The 
chapter summarizes Domaradsky’s talents and accomplishments. His autobiography, published in 
1995, elicited a wide range of  comments, mainly because it revealed for the first time details of  the 
Soviet BW program.
  For a more complete biography, see Part III below.
 Domaradsky, Troublemaker.

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Stories of  the Soviet Anti-Plague System
Ecology and Problems of  Bioterrorism
A.V. Lipnitsky and N.G. Tikhonov (pp. 354-59)
This chapter examines the links between ecology and biological terrorism. It describes the potential effects of  contemporary 
trends, like increased transportation and global warming, on viral epidemics.
Global warming could allow viral infections to spread northward from southern countries. Press 
reports of  several large viral infection outbreaks (Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever and West Nile 
fever) in Russia in the 1990s raised much speculation about bioterrorism, but contained little scientific 
analysis that distinguished the cause of  the outbreaks from the effects of  other trends. Lipnitsky 
and Tikhonov argue that more research on infectious diseases is needed. The authors also note the 
importance  of   having  access  to  sufficient  data  on  the  occurrence  of   regional  disease  in  order  to 
distinguish natural outbreaks from bioterrorism attacks.
Results  of   Contest  for  Best  Essay  and  Best  Scientific  Article 
Published in Volume 10 of  “Interesting Stories About the Activities 
and People of  the AP System of  Russia and the Soviet Union”
Yury Grigorevich Suchkov (pp. 360-61). One photograph.
This section honors K.B. Ilina for her article “Reminiscences of  Dmitry Titovich Verzhbitsky” and V.P. Sergiev for 
his article “Infection and Mankind: A look at the Interspecies Battle at the Threshold of  the Third Millennium, Sine 
Ira et Studio,” both published in Volume 10.
List of  Scientific Works by N.F. Darskaya
(pp. 362-66)
This chapter contains a bibliography of  56 works published by N.F. Darskaya between 1940 and 1996.
Forgotten Photographs
Mikhail Iosifovich Levi and Yury Grigorevich Suchkov (pp. 367-85). 17 photographs.
This collection includes photographs (primarily group portraits) of  AP system personnel from the Rostov-on-Don AP 
Institute and Mikrob. It includes one photograph of  a laboratory in Kerch, and another of  a culture medium production 
vessel at the Rostov-on-Don AP Institute.
  Interesting Stories... 10 (2000), pp. 41–72, 88–146.

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August 2013
 12, I
 1 (2002)
Renat Rashitovich Ibadulin (p. 3)
Introduction to the twelfth volume of  the “Interesting Stories…” series, published after the death of  original editor, 
M.I. Levi.
Full translation:
Volume 12 of  Interesting Stories About the Activities and People of  the AP System of  Russia and the 
Soviet Union is now a reality. Just a few months ago, no one could have known that it would be 
an issue honoring the memory of  Moisey Iosifovich Levi, the originator, editor-in-chief, and 
scientific editor of  the series.
His illness came suddenly. Thursday, February 7, 2002, was his last working day, which no one 
would have suspected, Moisey worked at the intense pace he usually does. We discussed various 
things, including the publication of  the next issue of  the journal, Dezinfektsionnoe Delo, and 
the content of  volume 12 of  Interesting Stories… He was very intent on getting this volume 
published and had done everything to accomplish it. He died on February 11. He left life at the 
peak of  his working ability, full of  ideas and plans.
Moisey’s family, his colleagues, and the administration of  Moscow Municipal Disinfection 
Center and its Testing Laboratory did everything possible to fulfill his wish. The series was 
completed with the publication of  its 12th volume, which was the goal he had set for himself.
Nadezhda Nikolaevna Basova assumed the duties of  editor-in-chief  and scientific editor for 
volume 12, part 1. Nadezhda Basova and Yury Grigorevich Suchkov were editors-in-chief  for 
part 2. Many of  Moisey’s friends and colleagues responded. They sent their remembrances, 
scientific articles, and photographs. The volume includes some of  Moisey’s scientific works 
and other writings that Yury Suchkov found in the files in Moisey’s office. Given the large 
number of  materials that were received and the wide variety of  subject matter, it was decided 
to publish volume 12 in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of  narratives and memoirs, while 
Part 2 contains works on scientific and related issues.
While we have always said that the work done on these issues was a remarkable citizens’ initiative 
by the editor-in-chief  and his colleagues, the entire 12-volume work is a printed monument to 
Professor Moisey Iosifovich Levi, Doctor of  Medical Sciences, who devoted 60 years of  his 
life to the teaching and practice of  medicine.
  This volume was edited by Nadezhda Nikolaevna Basova, Levi’s wife.

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Stories of  the Soviet Anti-Plague System
On behalf  of  the editors-in-chief, we would like to thank everyone who sent in materials and 
produced this volume. Everyone’s efforts, in one way or another, helped make this volume a 
R.R. Ibadulin,
First Deputy Chief  Physician
Moscow Municipal Disinfection Center

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