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From Naisten Aini, 1938. Published in Finland.
Two views of the land recently purchased by the Bahá’is of Iran and destined to be the site of the first Bahá’i Temple
of that country.
is the distant view of the land showing its setting in the hills not far from Tihrán.
a close-up of the
From Baha”u’lla’h and the New Era
MONG different peoples and at different times many different methods have been adopted for the measurement of
time and fixing of dates, and several different calendars are still in daily use,
the Gregorian in Western Europe, the
Julian in many countries of Eastern Europe, the Hebrew among the Jews, and the Muhammadan in Muslim countries.
The Bãb signalized the importance of the dispensation which He came to herald, by inaugurating a new calendar. In
this, as in the Gregorian Calendar, the lunar month is abandoned and the solar year is adopted.
The Bahá’i year consists of 19 months of 19 days each (i.e., 361 days), with the addition of certain “intercalary days”
(four in ordinary and five in leap years) between the eighteenth and nineteenth months in order
to adjust the calendar to the solar year. The Báb named the months after the attributes of God. The Bahá’i New Year, like the ancient
Iranian New Year, is astronomically fixed, commencing at the March equinox (March 21), and the Bahá’i era commences with the
year of the Báb’s declaration (i.e., 1844
In the not far distant future it will be necessary that all peoples in the world agree on a common calendar.
It seems, therefore, fitting that the new age of unity should have a new calendar free from the objections and associations which make
each of the older calendars unacceptable to large sections of the world’s population, and it is difficult to see how any other
arrangement could exceed in simplicity and convenience that proposed by the Báb.
BAHA’i FEASTS, ANNIVERSARIES,
AND DAYS OF FASTING
April 21-May 2, 1863.
Feast of Ridván (Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh),
Feast of Naw-Rflz (New Year), March 21.
Declaration of the Báb, May 23, 1844.
The Day of the Covenant, November 26.
Birth of Bahá’u’lláh, November 12, 1817.
Birth of the Bãb, October 20, 1819.
Birth of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, May 23, 1844.
Ascension of Bahã’u’lláh, May 29, 1892.
Martyrdom of the Mb, July 9, 1850.
Ascension of ‘Abdu’l-Bahã, November 28, 1921.
Fasting season lasts 19 days beginning with the first day of the month of ‘Ala’, March 2—the feast of Naw-Rflz follows immediately
BAHA’I CALENDAR AND FESTIVALS
BAHA’t HOLY DAYS ON WHICH WORK SHOULD BE SUSPENDED
The first day of Ridván,
The ninth day of Riçlvãn,
The twelfth day of Riçlván,
The anniversary of the declaration of the Báb,
The anniversary of the birth of Bahá’u’lláh,
The anniversary of the birth of the Báb,
The anniversary of the ascension of Bahá’u’llãh,
The anniversary of the martyrdom of the Báb,
The Feast of Naw-Rflz.
NOTE: ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, in one of His Tablets addressed to a believer of Nayriz, Iran, has written the following: “Nine
days in the year have been appointed on which work is forbidden. Some of these days have been specifically mentioned
in the Book. The rest follows as corollaries to the Text.
. . .
Work on the Day of the Covenant (Fête Day of ‘Abdu’l-
Bahá), however, is not prohibited. Celebration of that day is left to the discretion of the friends. Its observation is not
obligatory. The days pertaining to the Abhá Beauty (Bahâ’u’lláh) and the Primal Point (the Bãb), that is to say these
nine days, are the only ones on which work connected with trade, commerce, industry and agriculture is not allowed. In
like manner, work connected with any form of employment, whether governmental or otherwise, should be
As a corollary of this Tablet it follows that the anniversaries of the birth and ascension of ‘Abdu’l-Bahi are not to be
regarded as days on which work is prohibited. The celebration of these two days, however, is obligatory.
Bahá’is in East and West, holding administrative positions, whether public or private, should exert the utmost effort to
obtain special leave from their superiors to enable them to observe these nine holy days.
ADDITIONAL MATERIAL GLEANED FROM NABIL’S NARRATIVE (VOL. II),
REGARDING THE BAHA’i CALENDAR
The Badi’ Calendar (Bahá’i Calendar) has been taken by me from the
one of the works written by the Bâb. As I
have observed in these days that certain believers are inclined to regard the year in which Bahá’u’lláh departed from Baghdad to
Constantinople as marking the beginning of the Badi’ Calendar, I have requested Mirzá Aqá Jan, the amanuensis of Bahi’u’llãh, to
ascertain His will and desire concerning this matter. Bahá’u’lláh answered and said: ‘The year sixty
the year of the
Declaration of the Bab, must
be regarded as the beginning of the Badi’ Calendar.’ The Declaration of the Bab took place on the evening preceding the fifth day of
Jamãdiyu’l-Avval, of the year 1260
It has been ordained that the solar calendar be followed, and that the vernal Equinox, the day
of Naw-RiIz, be regarded as the New Year’s Day of the Badi’ Calendar. The year sixty, in which the fifth day of Jamádiyu’l-Avval
coincided with the sixty-fifth day after Naw-Rflz, has accordingly been regarded as the first year of the Badi’ Calendar. As in that
year, the day of Naw-Rflz,
THE BAHA’f WORLD
the vernal Equinox, preceded by sixty-six days the date of the Declaration of the Báb, I have therefore, throughout my history,
regarded the Naw-Rüz of the year sixty-one
(the Naw-Rüz immediately following the Declaration of the Báb) as the first Naw-
Rüz of the Badi’ Calendar. I have accordingly considered the Naw-Róz of this present year, the year 1306
which is the 47th solar
year after the Declaration of the Bãb, as the 46th Naw-Rüz of the Badi’ Calendar.
Rahmat Kalimát Kamál Asmi’
‘Ilm Qudrat Qawl Masá’il Sharaf Sultan Mu&
Soon after Bahá’u’lláh had left the fortress of ‘Akka and was dwelling in the house of Malik, in that city, He
commanded me to transcribe the text of the Badi’ Calendar and to instruct the believers in its details. On the very day
in which I received His command, I composed, in verse and prose, an exposition of the main features of that Calendar
and presented it to Him. The versified copy, being now unavailable, I am herein transcribing the version in prose. The
days of the week are named as follows:
of each month, are as
The names of the months, which are the same as the days follows:
Ayyam-i-Ha (Intercalary Days) February 26 to March four in ordinary and five in leap years.
BAHA’I CALENDAR AND FESTIVALS
The first day of each month is thus the day of Bahá, and the last day of each month the day of ‘AM’.
has regarded the solar year, of 365 days, 5 hours, and fifty odd minutes, as consisting of 19 months of 19 days
each, with the addition of certain intercalary days. He has named the New Year’s Day, which is the Day of Naw-Rfiz,
the day of Bahá, of the month of Bahá. He has ordained the month of ‘AM’ to be the month of fasting, and has decreed
that the day of Naw-Rflz should mark the termination of that period. As the Báb did not specifically define the place for
the four days and the fraction of a day in the Badi’ Calendar, the people of the Baya’n were at a loss as to how they
should regard them. The revelation of the Kita’b-iAqdas in the city of ‘Akkâ resolved this problem and settled the
issue. Bahá’u’lláh designated those days as the “Ayyãm-i-Há” and ordained that they should immediately precede the
month of ‘AM’, which is the month of fasting. He enjoined upon His followers to devote these days to feasting,
rejoicing, and charity. Immediately upon the termination of these intercalary days, Bahá’u’lláh ordained the month of
fasting to begin. I have heard it stated that some of the people of the Baycin, the followers of Mirzá Yahyá, have
regarded these intercalary days as coming immediately after the month of ‘AM’, thus terminating their fast five days
before the day of Naw-Rflz. This, notwithstanding the explicit text of the Baydn which states that the day of NawRüz
must needs be the first day of the month of Bahã, and must follow immediately after the last day of the month of ‘Ala’.
Others, aware of this contradiction, have started their fasting on the fifth day of the month of ‘Ala’, and included the
intercalary days within the period of fasting.
Every fourth year the number of the intercalary days is raised from four to five. The day of Naw-Rflz falls on the 21st
of March only if the vernal Equinox precedes the setting of the sun on that day. Should the vernal Equinox take place
after sunset, Naw-Rflz will have to be celebrated on the following day.
The Bãb has, moreover, in His writings, revealed in the Arabic tongue, divided the
years following the date of His Revelation, into cycles of nineteen years each. The names of the years in each cycle are as follows:
1. Alif A.
2. Bi’ B.
3. Ab Father.
4. Dál D.
6. Vâv V.
7. Abad Eternity.
8. Jad Generosity.
9. Bahi Splendor.
10. Hubb Love.
11. Bahháj Delightful.
12. Javáb Answer.
13. Abad Single.
14. Vahháb Bountiful.
15. Vidád Affection.
16. BadI Beginning.
17. Bahi Luminous.
18. Abha Most Luminous.
19. Val.ild Unity.
Each cycle of nineteen years is called Vábid. Nineteen cycles constitute a period called Kull-i-Shay’. The numerical value of the word
“VábId” is nineteen, that of “Kulli-Shay’
is 361. “Vabid” signifies unity, and is symbolic of the unity of God.
The Bab has, moreover, stated that this system of His is dependent upon the acceptance and good-pleasure of “Him Whom God shall
make manifest.” One word from Him would suffice either to establish it for all time, or to annul it forever.
For instance, the date of the 21st of April, 1930, which is the first day of Ridván, and which according to the
coincide with the “thirteenth day of the second Bahâ’i month,” and which fell this year (1930) on Monday, would, according to the
system of the Badi’ Calendar, be described as follows:
“The day of Kamál, the day of Qudrat, of the month of Jalal, of the year Bahháj, of the fifth Vahid, of the first Kull-i-Shay’.”
540 THE BAHA’I WORLD
HISTORICAL DATA GLEANED FROM NABIL’S NARRATIVE (VOL. II)
Works Revealed Houses Occupied
A. BA&iDAD During This During This
arrival latter part Jamádiyu’th- Qullu’t-Ta’ám House of Háji ‘All Tháni 1269 A.H. Madad
March 12—April 10,
A.D. (in old Baghdad)
departure for Sulaymániyyih on House of Sulaymán Wednesday April 10,
Rajab 12, 1270 A.H.
B. SULAYMANIvvIH Prayers
Before reaching SulaymlnIyyih, He
lived for a time on the Sar-Galá Qaidiy-i-Varqa’iyyih
During His absence from Baghdad, Saqiyas-Ghayb-iHis
family transferred their resi- Baqá
dence from House of Háji ‘AllMadad
to that of Sulaymán-iGhannam.
Nabil arrived at Baghdad
after Bahá’u’llah’s departure for
C. BAGHDAD Tafsir-i-Ijurüfat-i
arrived from Sulaymaniyyih on aifiy-i-Shattiyyih
Wednesday, March 19,
Rajab 12, 1272 A.H. (Seven Valleys)
departure from Mazra’iy-i-Vash- Subl3ána-Rabbiya’l
shash: Thursday, March 26, 1863 ‘Ala
1279 A.H. Shikkar-Shikan
Tablet of the Holy Mariner revealed IIiir-i-’Ujab
while in the Mazra’iy-i-Vashshásh. Halih-Halih-Ya
BAHA’I CALENDAR AND FESTIVALS 541
Works Revealed Houses Occupied
During This During This
departure from Baghdad for Con- Bázãvu-Bidih-Jámi
stantinople, Wednesday afternoon
(first day of Riclv&n), April 22,
1863 A.D.—Dhi’l-Qa’dih 3, 1279
Süriy-i-Sabr revealed on first day of Mallá5u’l-Quds
Rilván. (Holy Mariner)
arrival at Garden of Najibiyyih
(Garden of Ridvân), April 22,
1863 A.D.—Dhi’l-Qa’dih 3, 1279
arrival of Bahá’u’llih’s Family at Süriy-i-abr
Garden of Riçlván on eighth day
after first of Ridván.
departure from Garden of Ri4ván
for Constantinople last day of
Ridván, at noon on Sunday, May
3, 1863 A.D.—Dhi’l-Qa’dih 14,
length of overland journey from
Garden of Riclván to Samsün on
Black Sea: 110 days.
Firayját (arrival early afternoon— Márdin,
stayed seven days), arrived on Sun- Diyár-Bakr,
day, May 3, 1863 A.D.—Dhi’l- Ma’dan-Mis,
Qa’dih 14, 1279 A.H. (Firayját Khárpflt (stayed 2 or 3 days),
is about 3 miles distant from Ma’dan-Nuqrih,
Qarih-Tapih, Amasia, (stayed 2 days)
Saláhiyyih (stayed two nights), Iláhiyyih (while approaching Sam Dást-Khurmátfl son, “Lawh-i-Hawdaj” was re Tawuq vealed), (last
day of overland
KarkOk (stayed two days), journey),
Irbil, SamsOn (stayed
Zab River, Sea port. Sailed in a Turkish
Bartallih, steamer about sunset for Constan Mosu (stayed 3 days), tinople
ZakhO, Sinope (arrived next day about
Jazirih, noon), Black Sea port; stayed few
Hasan-Aqã, AnyábulI (arrived next day).
542 THE BAHA’I WORLD
Works Revealed Dur- Houses Occupied Dur D
. . . . .
ing This Period ing This Period
arrival at noon on Sub5ánika-Yá-Hü House of Shamsi Big 1 month Sunday, August 16, Lawh-i-’Abdu’l-’Aziz (2-story, near Khir1863
A.D. Va-Vukalá gih Sharaf Mosque) Rabi’u’l-Avval 1,
Length of sea voyage House of Vlsi Pãshã 3 months
from Sámsón to (3-story, near Sul Constantinopl 3 çán Muhammad
Length of journey
to Adrianople 12
1. KUchik-Chakmachih (3 hours from Constantinople—spent one night)
2. Buyük-Chakmachih (arrived about noon)
3. Salvari 4. Birkás S. Bãbã-iski
Works Revealed Dur- Houses Occupied Dur E
. . . . .
ing Tnis Periou ing This Period
arrival on Saturday, Siriy-i-Aáb 1. Khán-i-’Arib 3 nights
December 12, 1 863 (caravanserai, two A.D —Rajab
1280 story, near house
A.H. Law5-i-ajj I of ‘Izzat-Aqá)
Length of stay: 4
years, 8 months, 22
Length of overland Kitãb-i-Badl’ 2. House in Murãdlyyih 1 week
journey from Con- Süriy-i-Mulük quarter, near Tak stantinopl to Adri- (Tablet of the yiy-i-Mawlavi
anople: 12 days. Kings)
Departure from Adri- Sáriy-i-Amr 3. House in Murãdiyyih 6 months
anople on Wednes- Sñriy-i-Damm quarter, near house
day, August 12, Alváh-i-Laylatu’l- 2
1868 A.D.—Rabi- Quds 4. Khániy-i-Amru’lláh
Tháni 22, Munãjáthãy-’i
iyám (several stories,
1285 A.H. (Prayers for Fast- near Sulçan-Salini
Lawh-i-Sayyáh 5. House of Riclá Big 1 year
BAHA’t CALENDAR AND FESTIVALS 543
Works Revealed Dur—
. . .
sng This Period
Houses Occupied Dur-
. . .
ing This Period
(First Tablet to Napoleon III)
(Tablet to the Shah of Persia)
6. House of Amru’lláh (3-story. North of
7. House of ‘Izzat-Aqá
2. Kashánih (arrived about noon. Lawh-i-Ra’s (Tablet of Ra’is) was revealed in this place)
3. Gallipoli (length of journey from Adrianople to Gallipoli about 4 days)
(after a few days’ stay sailed before noon in Austrian steamer for Alexandria, Egypt)
4. Madelli (arrived about sunset—left at night)
5. Smyrna (stayed 2 days, left at night)
6. Alexandria (arrived in the morning, transshipped and left at night for Haifa)
7. Port Said (arrived morning, left the same day at night)
8. Jaff a (left at midnight)
9. Haifa (arrived in the morning, landed and after a few hours left on a sailing vessel for ‘Akkã)
arrival on Monday,
August 31, A.D.
Avval 12, 1285A.H.
Purest Branch died on Thursday, June 23, 1870 A.D.
Rabi’- u’l-Avval 23, 1287 A.H.
Passed away May 29, 1892 A.D.
Works Revealed Dur- Houses Occupied Dur-
. . . . . .
sng Tnis Perion ing
Kitáb-i-Aqdas Lawh-i-Nápulyón II
(Second Tablet to Napoleon III)
(Tablet to Queen Victoria)
Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rüs (Tablet to the
Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhi’b (Epistle to Son of the Wolf)
(Tablet to the
2. House of Malik
3. House of Rábi’ih
4. House of Mansi5s
iAqdas was revealed)
7. Qar (Mansion, where He passed
2 or 3
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