The baha’i world


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1k’- wereepesftoas 

— 

 



From Naisten Aini, 1938. Published in Finland. 

 

 



 

pict185.jpg

 

 



pict186.jpg

 

Two views of the land recently purchased by the Bahá’is of Iran and destined to be the site of the first Bahá’i Temple 



of that country.  

Above 

is the distant view of the land showing its setting in the hills not far from Tihrán. 



Below 

a close-up of the 

property. 

 

 



 

pict187.jpg

 

 

pict188.jpg



 

4. 

 

BAHA’I CALENDAR AND FESTIVALS 

 

FOREWORD  



B DR. 

J. 


E. ESSLEMONT 

 

From Baha”u’lla’h and the New Era 



 

ik 

MONG different peoples and at different times many different methods have been adopted for the measurement of 

time and fixing of dates, and several different calendars are still in daily use, 

e.g., 

the Gregorian in Western Europe, the 

Julian in many countries of Eastern Europe, the Hebrew among the Jews, and the Muhammadan in Muslim countries.  

The Bãb signalized the importance of the dispensation which He came to herald, by inaugurating a new calendar. In 

this, as in the Gregorian Calendar, the lunar month is abandoned and the solar year is adopted.  

The Bahá’i year consists of 19 months of 19 days each (i.e., 361 days), with the addition of certain “intercalary days” 

(four in ordinary and five in leap years) between the eighteenth and nineteenth months in order 

 

to adjust the calendar to the solar year. The Báb named the months after the attributes of God. The Bahá’i New Year, like the ancient 



Iranian New Year, is astronomically fixed, commencing at the March equinox (March 21), and the Bahá’i era commences with the 

year of the Báb’s declaration (i.e., 1844 



A.D., 

1260 


A.H.).  

In the not far distant future it will be necessary that all peoples in the world agree on a common calendar.  

It seems, therefore, fitting that the new age of unity should have a new calendar free from the objections and associations which make 

each of the older calendars unacceptable to large sections of the world’s population, and it is difficult to see how any other 

arrangement could exceed in simplicity and convenience that proposed by the Báb. 

 

BAHA’i FEASTS, ANNIVERSARIES,  



AND DAYS OF FASTING  

April 21-May 2, 1863. 

 

Feast of Ridván (Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh),  



Feast of Naw-Rflz (New Year), March 21.  

Declaration of the Báb, May 23, 1844.  

The Day of the Covenant, November 26.  

Birth of Bahá’u’lláh, November 12, 1817.  

Birth of the Bãb, October 20, 1819.  

Birth of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, May 23, 1844.  

Ascension of Bahã’u’lláh, May 29, 1892.  

Martyrdom of the Mb, July 9, 1850.  

Ascension of ‘Abdu’l-Bahã, November 28, 1921.  

Fasting season lasts 19 days beginning with the first day of the month of ‘Ala’, March 2—the feast of Naw-Rflz follows immediately 

after.  

536 

 

BAHA’I CALENDAR AND FESTIVALS 



 

537 

 

BAHA’t HOLY DAYS ON WHICH WORK SHOULD BE SUSPENDED  



The first day of Ridván,  

The ninth day of Riçlvãn,  

The twelfth day of Riçlván,  

The anniversary of the declaration of the Báb,  

The anniversary of the birth of Bahá’u’lláh,  

The anniversary of the birth of the Báb,  



The anniversary of the ascension of Bahá’u’llãh,  

The anniversary of the martyrdom of the Báb,  

The Feast of Naw-Rflz.  

NOTE: ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, in one of His Tablets addressed to a believer of Nayriz, Iran, has written the following: “Nine 

days in the year have been appointed on which work is forbidden. Some of these days have been specifically mentioned 

in the Book. The rest follows as corollaries to the Text. 

. . . 

Work on the Day of the Covenant (Fête Day of ‘Abdu’l-



Bahá), however, is not prohibited. Celebration of that day is left to the discretion of the friends. Its observation is not 

obligatory. The days pertaining to the Abhá Beauty (Bahâ’u’lláh) and the Primal Point (the Bãb), that is to say these 

nine days, are the only ones on which work connected with trade, commerce, industry and agriculture is not allowed. In 

like manner, work connected with any form of employment, whether governmental or otherwise, should be 

suspended.”  

As a corollary of this Tablet it follows that the anniversaries of the birth and ascension of ‘Abdu’l-Bahi are not to be 

regarded as days on which work is prohibited. The celebration of these two days, however, is obligatory.  

Bahá’is in East and West, holding administrative positions, whether public or private, should exert the utmost effort to 

obtain special leave from their superiors to enable them to observe these nine holy days. 

 

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL GLEANED FROM NABIL’S NARRATIVE (VOL. II), 



REGARDING THE BAHA’i CALENDAR  

The Badi’ Calendar (Bahá’i Calendar) has been taken by me from the 



“Kitáb-i-Asmcl’,” 

one of the works written by the Bâb. As I 

have observed in these days that certain believers are inclined to regard the year in which Bahá’u’lláh departed from Baghdad to 

Constantinople as marking the beginning of the Badi’ Calendar, I have requested Mirzá Aqá Jan, the amanuensis of Bahi’u’llãh, to 

ascertain His will and desire concerning this matter. Bahá’u’lláh answered and said: ‘The year sixty 

A.H. 

(1844 


A.D.), 

the year of the 

Declaration of the Bab, must 

 

be regarded as the beginning of the Badi’ Calendar.’ The Declaration of the Bab took place on the evening preceding the fifth day of 



Jamãdiyu’l-Avval, of the year 1260 

A.H. 

It has been ordained that the solar calendar be followed, and that the vernal Equinox, the day 

of Naw-RiIz, be regarded as the New Year’s Day of the Badi’ Calendar. The year sixty, in which the fifth day of Jamádiyu’l-Avval 

coincided with the sixty-fifth day after Naw-Rflz, has accordingly been regarded as the first year of the Badi’ Calendar. As in that 

year, the day of Naw-Rflz, 

 

538 

 

THE BAHA’f WORLD 



 

the vernal Equinox, preceded by sixty-six days the date of the Declaration of the Báb, I have therefore, throughout my history, 

regarded the Naw-Rüz of the year sixty-one 

A.H. 

(the Naw-Rüz immediately following the Declaration of the Báb) as the first Naw-

Rüz of the Badi’ Calendar. I have accordingly considered the Naw-Róz of this present year, the year 1306 

A.H., 

which is the 47th solar 

year after the Declaration of the Bãb, as the 46th Naw-Rüz of the Badi’ Calendar. 

 

Month  

1st  

2nd  


3rd  

4th  


5th  

6th  


7th  

8th  


9th  

10th  


11th  

12th  


13th  

14th  


15th  

16th  


17th  

18th  


19th 

 


Arabic Name  

Bahá  


Jalál  

Jamal  


‘Azamat  

Nor  


Rahmat Kalimát Kamál Asmi’  

‘Izzat Mashiyyat  

‘Ilm Qudrat Qawl Masá’il Sharaf Sultan Mu&  

‘Ala’ 


 

Soon after Bahá’u’lláh had left the fortress of ‘Akka and was dwelling in the house of Malik, in that city, He 

commanded me to transcribe the text of the Badi’ Calendar and to instruct the believers in its details. On the very day 

in which I received His command, I composed, in verse and prose, an exposition of the main features of that Calendar 

and presented it to Him. The versified copy, being now unavailable, I am herein transcribing the version in prose. The 

days of the week are named as follows: 

 

Translation  

Splendor  

Glory  

Beauty  


Grandeur  

Light  


Mercy  

Words  


Perfection  

Names  


Might  

Will  


Knowledge  

Power  


Speech  

Questions  

Honor  

Sovereignty  



Dominion  

Loftiness 

 

of each month, are as  



First Days  

March21  

April 9  

April28  

May 17  

June 5  


June 24  

July 13  

August 1  

August 20  

September 8  

September 27  

October 16  

November 4  

November 23  

December 12  

December 31  

January 19  

February 7  

March 2  

1 inclusive— 

 


The names of the months, which are the same as the days follows: 

 

Ayyam-i-Ha (Intercalary Days) February 26 to March four in ordinary and five in leap years. 



 

 

1st 



 

Jalál 


 

 

 



2nd 

 

Jamal 



 

Saturday 

 

Glory 


 

3rd 


 

Kamál 


 

Sunday 


 

Beauty 


 

4th 


  Fidal  

Monday 


 

Perfection 

5th 

 

‘Idal 



 

Tuesday 


 

Grace 


 

6th 


 

Istijlal 

 

Wednesday 



 

Justice 


 

7th 


 

 

Thursday 



 

Majesty 


 

 

BAHA’I CALENDAR AND FESTIVALS 



 

539 

 

The first day of each month is thus the day of Bahá, and the last day of each month the day of ‘AM’.  



The 

Báb 


has regarded the solar year, of 365 days, hours, and fifty odd minutes, as consisting of 19 months of 19 days 

each, with the addition of certain intercalary days. He has named the New Year’s Day, which is the Day of Naw-Rfiz, 

the day of Bahá, of the month of Bahá. He has ordained the month of ‘AM’ to be the month of fasting, and has decreed 

that the day of Naw-Rflz should mark the termination of that period. As the Báb did not specifically define the place for 

the four days and the fraction of a day in the Badi’ Calendar, the people of the Baya’n were at a loss as to how they 

should regard them. The revelation of the Kita’b-iAqdas in the city of ‘Akkâ resolved this problem and settled the 

issue. Bahá’u’lláh designated those days as the “Ayyãm-i-Há” and ordained that they should immediately precede the 

month of ‘AM’, which is the month of fasting. He enjoined upon His followers to devote these days to feasting, 

rejoicing, and charity. Immediately upon the termination of these intercalary days, Bahá’u’lláh ordained the month of 

fasting to begin. I have heard it stated that some of the people of the Baycin, the followers of Mirzá Yahyá, have 

regarded these intercalary days as coming immediately after the month of ‘AM’, thus terminating their fast five days 

before the day of Naw-Rflz. This, notwithstanding the explicit text of the Baydn which states that the day of NawRüz 

must needs be the first day of the month of Bahã, and must follow immediately after the last day of the month of ‘Ala’. 

Others, aware of this contradiction, have started their fasting on the fifth day of the month of ‘Ala’, and included the 

intercalary days within the period of fasting.  

Every fourth year the number of the intercalary days is raised from four to five. The day of Naw-Rflz falls on the 21st 

of March only if the vernal Equinox precedes the setting of the sun on that day. Should the vernal Equinox take place 

after sunset, Naw-Rflz will have to be celebrated on the following day.  

The Bãb has, moreover, in His writings, revealed in the Arabic tongue, divided the 

 

years following the date of His Revelation, into cycles of nineteen years each. The names of the years in each cycle are as follows:  



1. Alif A.  

2. Bi’ B.  

3. Ab Father.  

4. Dál D.  



5. 

Bãb Gate.  

6. Vâv V.  

7. Abad Eternity.  

8. Jad Generosity.  

9. Bahi Splendor.  

10. Hubb Love.  

11. Bahháj Delightful.  



12. Javáb Answer.  

13. Abad Single.  

14. Vahháb Bountiful.  

15. Vidád Affection.  

16. BadI Beginning.  

17. Bahi Luminous.  

18. Abha Most Luminous.  

19. Val.ild Unity.  

Each cycle of nineteen years is called Vábid. Nineteen cycles constitute a period called Kull-i-Shay’. The numerical value of the word 

“VábId” is nineteen, that of “Kulli-Shay’ 

“ 

is 361. “Vabid” signifies unity, and is symbolic of the unity of God.  



The Bab has, moreover, stated that this system of His is dependent upon the acceptance and good-pleasure of “Him Whom God shall 

make manifest.” One word from Him would suffice either to establish it for all time, or to annul it forever.  

For instance, the date of the 21st of April, 1930, which is the first day of Ridván, and which according to the 

Kitdb-i-Aqdas 

must 


coincide with the “thirteenth day of the second Bahâ’i month,” and which fell this year (1930) on Monday, would, according to the 

system of the Badi’ Calendar, be described as follows:  

“The day of Kamál, the day of Qudrat, of the month of Jalal, of the year Bahháj, of the fifth Vahid, of the first Kull-i-Shay’.” 

 

540 THE BAHA’I WORLD  



HISTORICAL DATA GLEANED FROM NABIL’S NARRATIVE (VOL. II) 

REGARDING  

BAHA’U’LLAH  

Works Revealed Houses Occupied  

A. BA&iDAD During This During This  

Period Period  

arrival latter part Jamádiyu’th- Qullu’t-Ta’ám House of Háji ‘All Tháni 1269 A.H. Madad  

March 12—April 10, 



1853 

A.D. (in old Baghdad)  

departure for Sulaymániyyih on House of Sulaymán Wednesday April 10, 

1854 

A.D.— i-Ghannlm  

Rajab 12, 1270 A.H.  

B. SULAYMANIvvIH Prayers  

Before reaching SulaymlnIyyih, He  

lived for a time on the Sar-Galá Qaidiy-i-Varqa’iyyih  

mountain.  

During His absence from Baghdad, Saqiyas-Ghayb-iHis  

family transferred their resi- Baqá  

dence from House of Háji ‘AllMadad  

to that of Sulaymán-iGhannam.  

Nabil arrived at Baghdad 



months  


after Bahá’u’llah’s departure for  

Sulaymániyyih.  

C. BAGHDAD Tafsir-i-Ijurüfat-i  

Muqaçça’ih  

arrived from Sulaymaniyyih on aifiy-i-Shattiyyih  

Wednesday, March 19, 



1856 

A.D.— Haft-Vadi  

Rajab 12, 1272 A.H. (Seven Valleys)  

Tafsir-i-Há  

Law-i-H6riyyih  

Kitáb-i-fqán  

Kalimát-i-Maknjjnih  

(Hidden Words)  

departure from Mazra’iy-i-Vash- Subl3ána-Rabbiya’l  

shash: Thursday, March 26, 1863 ‘Ala  

A.D.—Shavvál 

5, 

1279 A.H. Shikkar-Shikan  

Shavand  

Tablet of the Holy Mariner revealed IIiir-i-’Ujab  

while in the Mazra’iy-i-Vashshásh. Halih-Halih-Ya  

Bisharat  

Ghulámu’l-Khuld  

Az-Bagh-i_Jlahl 

 

BAHA’I CALENDAR AND FESTIVALS 541  



Works Revealed Houses Occupied  

C. 


BAGHDAD—COntinued 

During This During This  



Period Period  

departure from Baghdad for Con- Bázãvu-Bidih-Jámi  

stantinople, Wednesday afternoon  

(first day of Riclv&n), April 22,  

1863 A.D.—Dhi’l-Qa’dih 3, 1279  

A.H.  


Süriy-i-Sabr revealed on first day of Mallá5u’l-Quds  

Rilván. (Holy Mariner)  

arrival at Garden of Najibiyyih  

(Garden of Ridvân), April 22,  

1863 A.D.—Dhi’l-Qa’dih 3, 1279  

A.H.  


arrival of Bahá’u’llih’s Family at Süriy-i-abr  

Garden of Riçlván on eighth day  

after first of Ridván.  

departure from Garden of Ri4ván  

for Constantinople last day of  

Ridván, at noon on Sunday, May  

3, 1863 A.D.—Dhi’l-Qa’dih 14,  

1279 A.H.  

length of overland journey from  

Garden of Riclván to Samsün on  

Black Sea: 110 days.  

Firayját (arrival early afternoon— Márdin,  

stayed seven days), arrived on Sun- Diyár-Bakr,  

day, May 3, 1863 A.D.—Dhi’l- Ma’dan-Mis,  

Qa’dih 14, 1279 A.H. (Firayját Khárpflt (stayed 2 or 3 days),  

is about 3 miles distant from Ma’dan-Nuqrih,  

Baghdad) Dilik-Tásh,  

Judaydih, Sivás,  

Dili-’Abbás, Tüqát,  

Qarih-Tapih, Amasia, (stayed 2 days)  

Saláhiyyih (stayed two nights), Iláhiyyih (while approaching Sam Dást-Khurmátfl son, “Lawh-i-Hawdaj” was re Tawuq vealed), (last 

day of overland  

KarkOk (stayed two days), journey),  

Irbil, SamsOn (stayed 



days), Black  

Zab River, Sea port. Sailed in a Turkish  

Bartallih, steamer about sunset for Constan Mosu (stayed 3 days), tinople  

ZakhO, Sinope (arrived next day about  

Jazirih, noon), Black Sea port; stayed few  

Nisibin, hours,  

Hasan-Aqã, AnyábulI (arrived next day). 

 

542 THE BAHA’I WORLD  



Works Revealed Dur- Houses Occupied Dur D 

CONSTANTINOPLE 

. . . . . 

Duration  

ing This Period ing This Period  

arrival at noon on Sub5ánika-Yá-Hü House of Shamsi Big 1 month Sunday, August 16, Lawh-i-’Abdu’l-’Aziz (2-story, near Khir1863 

A.D. Va-Vukalá gih Sharaf Mosque) Rabi’u’l-Avval 1,  

1280 

A.H.  


Length of sea voyage House of Vlsi Pãshã 3 months  

from Sámsón to (3-story, near Sul Constantinopl 3 çán Muhammad  

days. Mosque)  

Length of journey  

from Constantinople  

to Adrianople 12  

days.  

1. KUchik-Chakmachih (3 hours from Constantinople—spent one night)  



2. Buyük-Chakmachih (arrived about noon)  

3. Salvari 4. Birkás S. Bãbã-iski  

Works Revealed Dur- Houses Occupied Dur E 

ADRIANOPLE 

. . . . . 

Duration  

ing Tnis Periou ing This Period  

arrival on Saturday, Siriy-i-Aáb 1. Khán-i-’Arib 3 nights  

December 12, 1 863 (caravanserai, two A.D —Rajab 



i, 

1280 story, near house  

A.H. Law5-i-ajj I of ‘Izzat-Aqá)  

Length of stay: 4  

years, 8 months, 22  

days. ii:  

Length of overland Kitãb-i-Badl’ 2. House in Murãdlyyih 1 week  

journey from Con- Süriy-i-Mulük quarter, near Tak stantinopl to Adri- (Tablet of the yiy-i-Mawlavi  



anople: 12 days. Kings)  

Departure from Adri- Sáriy-i-Amr 3. House in Murãdiyyih 6 months  

anople on Wednes- Sñriy-i-Damm quarter, near house  

day, August 12, Alváh-i-Laylatu’l- 2  

1868 A.D.—Rabi- Quds 4. Khániy-i-Amru’lláh  

‘u’th 


— 

Tháni 22, Munãjáthãy-’i 

iyám (several stories,  



1285 A.H. (Prayers for Fast- near Sulçan-Salini  

ing) Mosque)  

Lawh-i-Sayyáh 5. House of Riclá Big 1 year 

 

BAHA’t CALENDAR AND FESTIVALS 543 



 

 

.  



E. ADRIAN0PLE—contznued 

 

Works Revealed Dur—  



. . .  

sng This Period 

 

Houses Occupied Dur-  



. . .  

ing This Period 

 

.  


Duration 

 

Law-i-Nápulyin I  



(First Tablet to Napoleon III)  

Lawb-i-Sulcán  

(Tablet to the Shah of Persia)  

Law5-i-Nuqçih 

 

6. House of Amru’lláh (3-story. North of 



Sulçan 

Salim Mosque)  



7. House of ‘Izzat-Aqá 

 

3 months?  



11 months 

 

1. Uzün-Kupri  



2. Kashánih (arrived about noon. Lawh-i-Ra’s (Tablet of Ra’is) was revealed in this place)  

3. Gallipoli (length of journey from Adrianople to Gallipoli about 4 days)  

(after a few days’ stay sailed before noon in Austrian steamer for Alexandria, Egypt)  

4. Madelli (arrived about sunset—left at night)  



5. Smyrna (stayed 2 days, left at night)  

6. Alexandria (arrived in the morning, transshipped and left at night for Haifa)  

7. Port Said (arrived morning, left the same day at night)  

8. Jaff a (left at midnight)  



9. Haifa (arrived in the morning, landed and after a few hours left on a sailing vessel for ‘Akkã) 

 

,  



F. AKKA  

arrival on Monday,  

August 31, A.D.  

1868 


— 

Jamádiyu’l-  

Avval 12, 1285A.H.  

Purest Branch died on Thursday, June 23, 1870 A.D. 

— 

Rabi’- u’l-Avval 23, 1287 A.H.  



Passed away May 29, 1892 A.D. 

 

Works Revealed Dur- Houses Occupied Dur-  



. . . . . .  

sng Tnis Perion ing 

nis Person 



 

.  


Duration 

 

Kitáb-i-Aqdas Lawh-i-Nápulyón II  



(Second Tablet to Napoleon III)  

Lawh-i-Malikih  

(Tablet to Queen Victoria)  

Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rüs (Tablet to the  

Czar)  

Süriy-i-Haykal  



Lawh-i-Burhán  

Law-i-Ru’yã  

Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhi’b (Epistle to Son of the Wolf)  

Law5-i-Páp  

(Tablet to the  

Pope) 


 

1. Barracks  

2. House of Malik  

3. House of Rábi’ih  

4. House of Mansi5s  

5. House of ‘Abbid (where Kitáb-

iAqdas was revealed)  

6. Mazra’ih  

7. Qar (Mansion, where He passed 

away) 

 

2 years, 2 months, 



days  

3 months  

2 or 3  

months 


 

 

5. 



 
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