Content I. Introduction II. Main part Approaches of Curriculum 4

The Technical-Scientific Approaches

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Advanced theories in building a curriculum for young learners

The Technical-Scientific Approaches

Generally speaking , curriculum developers which may include specialists, superintendents, principals and coordinators are likened to engineers and architects who use instruments and empirical methods in preparing a blueprint with well defined elements orderly-sequenced procedures, and quality control measures to increase the probability of success in its implementation.
The technical-scientific approach states that the aims of education can be made known, stated precisely, and addressed in a linear fashion. This approach exemplifies the belief in modernism, a view that praises rationality, objectivity, and certainty(ibid.:208)
Successively , Ornstein and Hunkins (1998:203) argue that this approach views the world as a complex machine, but a machine that can be observed and manipulated. The main ideas of the technical-scientific approach to curriculum development as postulated by its advocates (Macnold, Bobbitt, Charters, Taba, Tyler and others) are the following:

  1. Improving the professional competence of teachers when they participate in curriculum development,

  2. Shaping the goals , selecting the content and method of instruction as well as evaluating results, is assured by teacher's involvement,

  3. Interacting among teachers ,learners, and people during face-to-face sessions, they will better understand each other.

  4. Planning curricula , structuring the learning environment , and coordinating the elements of personnel, materials, and equipment to optimize students' learning and to increase their output.

  5. Promoting curriculum developers to:

    1. use a rational approach to tasks accomplishing.

    2. believe in the possibility of outlining systematically the procedures that will facilitate the creation of curricula.

    3. Employ a means-end paradigm that suggests the more rigorous the means, the more likely the desired results.

    4. indicate that a systematically designed program can be evaluated.

To Ornstein and Hunkins (1988:68 - 97). "A curriculum approach reflects a holistic position, encompassing the foundations of curriculum, domains of curriculum, and the theoretical and practical principles of curriculum , in this respect , some of curriculum approaches are cited such as :(a) behavioral-rational approach, (b) systems approaches, (c) managerial approach, (d) intellectual-academic approach, (e) humanistic-aesthetic approach, and (i) re-conceptual approach."
In the Technical - Scientific Approach, there are many different curriculum approaches , vis :

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