Content I. Introduction II. Main part Approaches of Curriculum 4

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Advanced theories in building a curriculum for young learners

The Objectives Model Approach

The ‘Objectives approach’ is so named because the very first step in this approach is the defining of objectives of the course/ program/lesson. (Tyler 1949) In this approach the school is viewed as a ‘factory’. Tyler states three important sources that must be looked at in order to contextualize and make curriculum development more relevant. These are:

  1. The learners and their backgrounds,

  2. Present and future society, and

  3. Knowledge of the major disciplines, especially Philosophy, Psychology and Sociology.

Tyler (1949: 45) adds that if these are considered that good citizens can be determined. The more specific the specification of objectives, the easier it will be to determine the sorts of activities that students can be engaged in. Tyler’s approach is seen as the linear model as well as the ‘ends-means’ model .

  1. The Classical/Rational Approach

The classical/rational approach to curriculum development follows an "objectivist", product-oriented paradigm. The aims and objectives of the curriculum are set by professionals and experts who believe that they have sufficient technical knowledge to produce the desired product. It assumes that there is agreement by all interested groups (teachers, students, communities, employers) on common educational goals and, therefore, dialogue and consensus building among groups are not required(Van Crowder, 1997:23).

  1. The Behavioral-Rational Approach

It is a means-end approach, viewing the curriculum as the means, whereas , instruction as the end is a behavioral orientation, in the sense that Stern (1984:501) observes , " a means-ends view of teaching is unavoidable in language pedagogy". Curricula , in this approach, are became the actual blueprints which prescribe the roles of key figures in the educative process.

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