Definition


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Definition



Communication: transfer of information between individuals

  • Communication: transfer of information between individuals

  • Arbitrary: no relationship between the symbols (words) used to represent an object and the object

  • Structured: the pattern of the symbols is meaningful.

    • Two kinds of patterns to think about
      • Morphological structures (e.g., Latin, Arabic)
      • Syntax e.g., the boy ran from the angry dog
      • the boy ran from the dog angry


Generative: The basic units can be used to build a limitless number of meanings.

  • Generative: The basic units can be used to build a limitless number of meanings.

  • Dynamic: Languages change by word absorption, and grammar rules shift.



Critical period

  • Critical period

    • Developmental stages
    • Pattern of cognitive ability
  • Recursive or Self-Reflexive

    • The dog is chasing its tail
    • It’s cold outside, isn’t it?
  • Displaced reference: Language can refer to things not present in the here and now

      • The ancient Greeks deduced the size of the Earth, Moon and Sun, and the distances amongst each, using simple geometry.


Recursion: automatic self-pointing repetition – two mirrors reflecting each other

  • Recursion: automatic self-pointing repetition – two mirrors reflecting each other

  • Self-reference: is about information – using information in a system for the system.

    • Unraveling a hose by running water through it.
  • Self-reflexive: is about process – using a process in a system to fix the same process.

    • Using the water in a fire hose to put out the fire on the hose.


Definition

  • Definition

  • Taxonomy

  • Perception

  • Critical Window & Stages of Development

  • Language in Animals



Phonemes

  • Phonemes

    • the smallest units of sound that are considered part of the language
    • one letter like /t/ will have several variants the are aspirant or percussive (or non-aspirant) which are called allophones.


Phoneme (phonemic)

    • Phoneme (phonemic)
      • Speech sound represented by a single symbol
        • letters
      • Contain no meaning
      • Phonemic differences do change the meaning of a word
      • About 200 phonemes across all known languages
      • 44 in English


Vowels

  • Vowels

    • Vocal tract is open
    • Formed by varying placement of the tongue
        • Vertical: high – mid – low
        • Horizontal: front – central – back




Perceiving phonemes

  • Perceiving phonemes

  • Despite coarticulation….



  • English has 44 phonemes, World average is 31

    • 70% of World’s between 20 and 37
    • Fewest is 11 (Rotakas, Indo-Pacific L.)
    • Most is 141 (!Xu, southern Africa)
    • Minimum number of vowels: 3, eg. Arabic
    • Some have 24 vowels
    • 13 language have more than 16 vowels,
    • most languages have about 5 vowels
    • English has around 11-12 vowels


Morphemes

  • Morphemes

    • String phonemes together and you get morphemes, the smallest units of meaning like /dog/ which is one morpheme or /doggy/ which is two.
    • There are plural morphemes like /s/, /z/, /zez/ or tense morphemes like /t/, /d/. There are irregular patterns for plurals which any native listener would be able to recognize when hearing them for the first time.


Syntax – Word order in sentences – Native speakers know what is not grammatical even if they have never heard the sentence before. – Hierarchical structure

  • Syntax – Word order in sentences – Native speakers know what is not grammatical even if they have never heard the sentence before. – Hierarchical structure

    • Subject – Object – Verb (Japanese, Maninka)
    • Subject – Verb – Object (English, Spanish)
    • Verb – Subject – Object (Jacaltec, Gaelic)
    • Verb – Object – Subject (Malagasy, Madag.; Huave, Mx)
    • Object – Subject – Verb (Xavante)


Suprasegmentals –

  • Suprasegmentals –

    • Pitch, amplitude, duration, Cadence of sentences
    • Prosody, information conveyed through tone
  • Onomatopoeia ,

    • eg. Umph, ouch,
    • /woof/ in English, /a-wau/ in Arabic


Definition

  • Definition

  • Taxonomy

  • Perception (Bottom-Up / Top-Down)

  • Critical Window & Stages of Development

  • Language in Animals



Analysis of the basic speech sounds

    • Analysis of the basic speech sounds
    • / / represents the sound, apart from spelling
    • Acoustic structure can be viewed with the use of a speech spectrograph, which produces a spectogram
      • Plots sound waves of differing frequencies that result from speech








Phonemes also differ by suprasegmental factors

  • Phonemes also differ by suprasegmental factors

  • Rate, stress, and intonation

  • Coarticulation

      • A given phoneme sounds different depending on neighboring phonemes
      • Phonemes are articulated simultaneously








Bayesian probability uses prior likelihoods

  • Bayesian probability uses prior likelihoods

  • Wave patterns (formants) /Ba/ /Da/ & /Ga/ exist on a continuous spectrum

  • But we perceive abrupt boundaries between formants. How?

  • Partially, by experience within one modality.



But we perceive abrupt boundaries between formants. How?

  • But we perceive abrupt boundaries between formants. How?

  • Partially, by Bayesian integration across modalities







Based on Reicher (1969)

  • Based on Reicher (1969)

  • On the next several slides, a row of six letters will appear.

  • You will then see two letters, one above and one below a letter that appeared

  • Guess which of the two letters actually appeared in the appropriate location





















































Letters are more easily recognized in the context of a word than alone

  • Letters are more easily recognized in the context of a word than alone

  • Words are also more easily recognized after processing a sentence

  • This demonstrates the importance of the interaction between top-down and bottom-up processing



fi yuo cna raed tihs, yuo hvae a sgtrane mnid too    Cna yuo raed tihs? Olny 55 plepoe out of 100 can.    i cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno't mtaetr in waht oerdr the  ltteres in a wrod are, the olny iproamtnt tihng is taht  the frsit and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset  can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whotuit a  pboerlm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey  lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Azanmig huh? yaeh  and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt!

  • fi yuo cna raed tihs, yuo hvae a sgtrane mnid too    Cna yuo raed tihs? Olny 55 plepoe out of 100 can.    i cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno't mtaetr in waht oerdr the  ltteres in a wrod are, the olny iproamtnt tihng is taht  the frsit and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset  can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whotuit a  pboerlm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey  lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Azanmig huh? yaeh  and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt!



Definition

  • Definition

  • Taxonomy

  • Perception

  • Critical Window & Stages of Development

  • Language in Animals



Story of Clever Hans

  • Story of Clever Hans

  • Honeybees

  • Songbirds

  • Parrots

  • Vervet Monkeys

  • Dolphins

  • Monkeys & Apes



Honeybees

  • Honeybees

  • • When a forager bee locates food it returns to the hive and performs a dance.

  • • The number of repetitions of the dance communicates the quality of the food.

  • • Distance is communicated by the form of the dance.

  • – Round Dance: < 20 ft

  • – Sickle Dance: 20 – 60 ft.

  • – Tail-Wagging Dance: > 60 ft, coded by rate

  • • Direction is also communicated in the sickle and tail-wagging dances.

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-7ijI-g4jHg

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4NtegAOQpSs&NR=1



Irene Pepperberg has spent 25 years teaching Grey Parrots “meaningful use of English speech”.

  • Irene Pepperberg has spent 25 years teaching Grey Parrots “meaningful use of English speech”.

  • Model/Rival Training

  • • Trainer + Model/Rival + Parrot

  • • Trainer presents objects to the model/rival and queries them about it.

  • – Correct: Get the item.

  • – Incorrect: Get corrective feedback.

  • • The only reward is the object talked about, but after a correct response the parrot can

  • request something it wants (e.g., a nut).



“Alex exhibits cognitive capacities comparable to those of marine mammals,apes, and sometimes 4-year-old children.”

  • “Alex exhibits cognitive capacities comparable to those of marine mammals,apes, and sometimes 4-year-old children.”

  • Alex correctly labels

    • 50+ objects, 7 colors, 5 shapes, quantities up to 6
  • He correctly uses

    • “No.”
    • “Come here.”
    • “Wanna go X.”
    • “Want Y.”
  • He combines labels to correctly identify more than 100 objects in his environment.

  • He surfs the internet

  • http://www.pbs.org/saf/1201/video/watchonline.htm



Larynx in nasal cavity in most animals except during vocalizing, when it moves to oral cavity

  • Larynx in nasal cavity in most animals except during vocalizing, when it moves to oral cavity

  • Same true for human infants, but around 3 months moves to throat

  • Lower larynx makes an animal sound larger, it also happens to help vocalization and formant (vowel) production

  • Humans have it permanently low, and it grows even lower in human male adolescents



Sarah (Primack, 1971): vocabulary of more than 100 words of various parts of speech. Showed rudimentary linguistic skills. She modeled her trainer and was able to use the instructions she received to construct what appeared to be a rudimentary language of her own.

  • Sarah (Primack, 1971): vocabulary of more than 100 words of various parts of speech. Showed rudimentary linguistic skills. She modeled her trainer and was able to use the instructions she received to construct what appeared to be a rudimentary language of her own.

  • Nim Chimpsky (Terrace, 1981): two-words combination

    • "Give orange me give eat orange me eat orange give me eat orange give me you.“
    • Most of the utterances were repetitions of what Nim had seen and didn’t show rudiment of syntactical expression (no preference for the grammatically correct form)
    • “Nim give banana” or “banana give Nim” or “banana Nim give”


Kanzi is the star of animal language studies today (Savage-Rumbaugh, Shanker & Taylor, 1998).

  • Kanzi is the star of animal language studies today (Savage-Rumbaugh, Shanker & Taylor, 1998).

  • He uses a keyboard language called Yerkish.

    • Kanzi was not formally introduced to Yerkish.
    • He sat on his adopted mother’s back while she received lessons in Yerkish.
    • Mom never learned, but Kanzi started using the keyboard spontaneously.
    • Since then his “training” has consisted of walks in the woods.
    • Kanzi understands over 200 symbols.


Kanzi was faced with 310 sentences of various types

  • Kanzi was faced with 310 sentences of various types

  • action-object sentences (e.g. "Would you please carry the straw"),

  • action-object-location sentences (e.g. "Put the tomato in the refrigerator")

  • action-object-recipient sentences (e.g., "Carry the cooler to Penny").

  • Of the 310 sentences tested, Kanzi got 298 correct.

  • Savage-Rumbaugh concludes…. Kanzi’s sentence comprehension appears to be syntactically based in that he responds differently to the same word depending upon its function in the sentence

  • but..many nouns are pragmatically constrained i.e. “refridgerator in the tomato?” etc.



Seems to understands the importance of word order (I.e. therefore has some limited syntax):

  • Seems to understands the importance of word order (I.e. therefore has some limited syntax):

  • PUT JELLY IN MILK versus PUT MILK IN JELLY

  • He seems to understand rudimentary features of sentence structure such as who does what to whom:

  • LIZ IS GOING TO TICKLE KANZI versus YOU TICKLE LIZ



Genie

  • Genie

    • Kept in isolation from 20 mo
    • Was discovered in 1970 when she was 13+
    • Is it possible to learn language at this late age?
    • Genie only developed a limited syntax
      • Applesauce buy store
      • Man motorcycle have
  • Feral Children

    • Djuma, “Wolf Boy”
      • Found living among wolves
      • “Mother dead. Father dead. Brother dead. Sister dead. Mother nice. Father bad.”
    • The Boy from Aveyron
      • Within a few months Victor could sit in a chair, express his emotions without being violent, and he could even speak a few words, like ‘milk’, and ‘Oh God’, which was something Dr. Itard’s housekeeper, Mme. Guerin, often said. Victor also came to like Mme. Guerin, who fed and cared for him.


Creole languages develop “out of nothing”

  • Creole languages develop “out of nothing”

  • Speakers of Pigdin use many mother tongues, mixing up words and syntax, usually without articles or prepositions.

  • Their children develop the Creole language, keeping the words, adding prepositions, articles.

  • The Creole vocabulary is reduced, word-order is variable, with little grammatical structure, meaning is context dependent.



What makes language hard to acquire?

  • What makes language hard to acquire?

    • How do you know when one syllabe starts and another ends? Coarticulation: Phonemes overlap in time
    • Variability in speech signal
    • No one-to-one correspondence between the acoustic stimuli and the speech sounds we hear
  • How do we recognize sounds in a way so a stable set of phonemes is perceived?



What newborn and very young infants can already do

  • What newborn and very young infants can already do

    • discriminate human speech from other sounds and prefer to listen to it
    • discriminate their mother’s voice from that of other adult women
    • discriminate their language from another language
    • they listen longer to a story that they have heard read in the womb




Cooing – long vowel sounds (ooooooh) or consonant vowel combinations (gaaaaaah)

  • Cooing – long vowel sounds (ooooooh) or consonant vowel combinations (gaaaaaah)

    • They are capable of generating any sound found in any language.
  • Babbling – (6-10 m.o.) consonant-vowel combinations and repetitions (dadadada)

  • 12-14 mo become selective towards sounds in mother tongue, by 18 mo has vocabulary of 50 words

  • 24 mo starts using two word sentences



Overextension / overgeneralization

  • Overextension / overgeneralization

    • Doggy means all four legged furry animals
    • daddy means all grown up men who wear beards
  • Overregularization

    • Fish (pl.) = Fishes; run ~runned; go~goed
  • Competence vs. Knowledge

        • Look at the Fisses
        • It’s not fisses, it’s fish
        • That’s what I said, fisses
  • As a new cognitive ability comes online, the preceding one shows a temporary deficit



Babies start off by being able to produce any sound then they become selective towards mother-tongue phonemes.

  • Babies start off by being able to produce any sound then they become selective towards mother-tongue phonemes.

  • How do they make sense of the blooming buzzing confusion? How can you measure their learning…?

  • …Habituation Paradigm!









Construct a Table in which each of the 25 rows corresponds to a phoneme (sound unit) in the English language. List the consonantal phonemes in the following order (start with # for “none” then) p, t, k, b, d, g, m, n, ng, f, th, s, sh, ch, v, z, zh, j, l, r, y, w, h. Each of the 25 columns also corresponds to a phoneme in English (start with V for any vowel, then) p, t, k, b, d, g, m, n, ng, f, th, s, sh, ch, v, z, zh, j, l, r, y, w, h.

  • Construct a Table in which each of the 25 rows corresponds to a phoneme (sound unit) in the English language. List the consonantal phonemes in the following order (start with # for “none” then) p, t, k, b, d, g, m, n, ng, f, th, s, sh, ch, v, z, zh, j, l, r, y, w, h. Each of the 25 columns also corresponds to a phoneme in English (start with V for any vowel, then) p, t, k, b, d, g, m, n, ng, f, th, s, sh, ch, v, z, zh, j, l, r, y, w, h.

  • Reminder: These refer to sounds not letters.

  • Now fill in the table with an X to indicate which of the phonemes in the rows may be followed by which of the phonemes in the columns, in order to begin an English syllable. Place an X in each box in the Table that corresponds to a legal syllable onset in standard English.



Questions:

  • Questions:

  • Which are the privileged / legal phonemes?

  • Why are some combinations of phonemes allowed and others not?

  • How is the structure of spoken language visible in this chart?



Mother Tongue Word Boundary Acquisition in Infants

  • Mother Tongue Word Boundary Acquisition in Infants

  • Discerning Word Boundaries



Bottom-up factors

    • Bottom-up factors
      • Phonotactic knowledge
        • Sensitivity to the rules that govern phoneme combinations in a given language
        • Example: jp never occurs in English
      • Metrical segmentation
        • Phonological regularities of a given language
        • Example: In English, content words tend to start with strong syllables and end with weak syllables


Using Statistical Probabilities to Detect Word Boundaries

  • Using Statistical Probabilities to Detect Word Boundaries

  • Statistical regularities present in the speech sequence is used to detect word boundaries

    • Habituation Paradigm, Saffran, Aslin, and Newport (1996)
    • Phase 1
      • Presented infants with a two-minute continuous speech stream composed of 4 different 3-syllable nonsense words strung together in random order
    • Bidaku/padoti/golabu/fotavi


Phase 2

    • Phase 2
      • Two types of test trials
        • Previously defined “words” heard by infants
        • New experimenter defined words containing the same syllables, but in new combinations
      • Old: bidaku/padoti/golabu/fotavi
      • New: kupa/dotigola/avibida/bufot
        • Infants controlled listening time by staring or not staring at a blinking light
          • Infants prefer “novelty”


Prediction

  • Prediction

  • If picked up on words from phase 1

    • Will look at blinking light when new “words” are heard
  • If did not pick up on the “words” from phase 1

    • Will look at light for old and new “words”—both are novel
    • Results
      • Prediction (Hypothesis) 1 wins! Kids stared at light under type 2 words; they recognized the new words as new


'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

    • 'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
    • Did gyre and gimble in the wabe:
    • All mimsy were the borogoves,
    • And the mome raths outgrabe.
    • "Beware the Jabberwock, my son!
    • The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!
    • Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun
    • The frumious Bandersnatch!"
  • Lewis Carrol











Neural mechanisms underlying developmental dyslexia:

  • Neural mechanisms underlying developmental dyslexia:

  • single or multiple?

    • Phonological representation deficits
    • General temporal processing deficits
    • Magnocellular deficits


















Language has a structure that shifts depending on whether the emphasis is on

  • Language has a structure that shifts depending on whether the emphasis is on

    • causing-to-change
    • causing-to-happen
    • causing-to-have
    • Language also Makes Metaphors out of
      • Time
      • Space
      • Matter


Pinker Stuff of Thought, 2007

  • Pinker Stuff of Thought, 2007

  • Study of verbs

    • Content & Container Locatives
    • Datives
    • Causative alternations, transitive and intransitive




Content & Container Locatives (e.g., load, sprayed)

  • Content & Container Locatives (e.g., load, sprayed)

  • Prepositional and Double-Object Datives (e.g., bring, carry)

  • Causative alternations, transitive and intransitive (e.g., hit, wrecked)

  • For each of these verb classes:

    • Their meaning is synonymous
    • The alternation can be applied to many verbs
    • Children apply the pattern in situations they could not have learnt, and adults apply it to new terms
    • The difference between Monogamous (only one form) and Alternating verbs is due to how the brain “makes” meaning.


Container Locatives

  • Container Locatives

  • Hal is loading the wagon with hay

  • Jared sprayed the roses with water

  • Betsy splashed the wall with paint

  • Jeremy rubbed the wood with oil





The physics of the change-in-state matters. Are they caused or allowed?

  • The physics of the change-in-state matters. Are they caused or allowed?

  • Verbs that can alternate: caused

    • Brush, dab, daub, plaster, rub, slather, smear, smudge, spread
  • Verbs that do not alternate: allowed

    • Dribble, drip, drop, dump, funnel, ladle, pour, siphon, slop, slosh


Changing entities are treated as moving objects

  • Changing entities are treated as moving objects

    • A change-in-state = movement.
      • “A state is conceived as a location in space of possible states, and change is equated with movement from one location to another in the state-space.” Pinker, 2007, pg. 47.
      • Pedro slid from 1st base to 2nd
      • Pedro slid from health to illness
    • “Its reconstrual gets compacted into a single point, its internal geometry obliterated.” Pinker, 2007, pg 49
      • Bees are swarming in the garden
      • The garden is swarming with bees
      • Juice dripped from the peach
      • The peach dripped with juice


Alternation reflects the manner of the change-in-state matters.

    • Alternation reflects the manner of the change-in-state matters.
    • Alternating verbs involve a ballistic force in multiple directions
      • Inject, shower, spatter, splash, spray, sprinkle, spritz
    • Non-alternating verbs involve forceful expelling from inside a volume
      • Emit, excrete, expectorate, expel, exude, secrete, spew, spit, vomit


Give a muffin to a moose





Datives that alternate are ones where causing to give results in causing to have:

  • Datives that alternate are ones where causing to give results in causing to have:

      • Annette sent the doctor a package
      • Annette sent the package to the doctor
      • Annette sent the boarder a package
  • Datives that do not alternate are those where causing to give does not result in causing to have

      • Goldie drove her bus to the lake
      • Goldie drove the lake her bus
      • Annette sent the BORDER the package
  • You cannot cause a lake to possess a bus; you cannot alternate the verb



Physics also counts for Datives

  • Physics also counts for Datives

    • To give all at once alternate, but given over time gradually do not
    • Bash, bat, bounce, bunt, chuck, flick
    • Carry, drag, haul, hoist, lift, lower, pull, push
  • Manner also counts for datives

    • In communication, verbs about the pragmatics alternate but the manner of asking do not
    • He asked the President a question
    • He asked the question to the President
    • He whispered the question to the President
    • He whispered the President the question


Bobbie boiled the egg

  • Bobbie boiled the egg

  • Tim bounced the ball

  • Washington marched the soldiers across the field

  • Jack jump-started the car





Causitives can alternate if the causation is direct

  • Causitives can alternate if the causation is direct

      • The window broke
      • Darren broke the window
      • Darren broke the window by startling the carpenter who was installing it
  • Volitional, involuntary actions cannot alternate

    • The contract was signed; Bob signed the contract
    • Mary laughed; Bob laughed Mary


Language has a structure that shifts depending on whether the emphasis is on

  • Language has a structure that shifts depending on whether the emphasis is on

    • causing-to-change
    • causing-to-happen
    • causing-to-have
    • Language also Makes Metaphors out of
      • Time
      • Space
      • Matter


Can I fill some salt into the bear?

  • Can I fill some salt into the bear?

  • I’m going to cover a screen over me

  • Feel your hand to that

  • Look, Mom, I’m gonna pour it with water, my belly.

  • I hitted this into my neck





The Mooping Test (A Wug Test)

  • The Mooping Test (A Wug Test)

    • Create a word mooping (to move a sponge to a purple cloth turning it green)
      • The verb describes the manner of moving (zigzagging) versus moving which results in the cloth changing colors
    • In motion condition, children and adults use content-locative (mooping the sponge)
    • in color-changing condition children and adults use container-locative (mooping the cloth)


Each cell has a criteria for firing

  • Each cell has a criteria for firing

  • criteria shift

  • No one neuron firing is sufficient information, the meaning is in the average rate in a given population.





How do you get neurons to represent simple logical functions?

  • How do you get neurons to represent simple logical functions?

  • By setting the threshold

  • This requires pre-wiring

  • But cannot pre-wire for every thing in the world like mouse or justice.



Instead of one-neuron-one-symbol the brain uses distributed representation

  • Instead of one-neuron-one-symbol the brain uses distributed representation

  • Many categories combined (e.g., crispy, green, edible) sum up to create one value (e.g., celery)



Turn the network upside down, and you can represent the fuzzy quality of logic where tokens can be more or less good examples of a category.

  • Turn the network upside down, and you can represent the fuzzy quality of logic where tokens can be more or less good examples of a category.

  • Here the item tomato only lights up some of the qualities for fruit



The neuron at the top is removed and the correlations amongst the nodes is preserved.

  • The neuron at the top is removed and the correlations amongst the nodes is preserved.

  • The everything-connects-to-everything is called auto-associator, and has five features in common with human pattern recognition.



Five features of Auto-associators

  • Five features of Auto-associators

    • Reconstructive and content addressable memory
      • Specifying an item in memory automatically lights up a copy or version of that memory anywhere else. If you light one part of the network, if the weights are strong enough, the parts will light up.
          • State dependent or context dependent memory
          • One part of a lyric cues the rest.


Five features of Auto-associators

  • Five features of Auto-associators

    • 2. Graceful degradation. Do not discard the whole percept because of one faulty piece of information (e.g., PRITN, HELF)


Five features of Auto-associators

  • Five features of Auto-associators

    • 3. Constraint satisfaction.
      • Sinned a pin does not make sense.
      • But send a pen does even though the sounds are very similar.
      • With logic you have to test each possibility. With auto-associator the context is intrinsic to the network, and the most meaningful evaluation emerges.
      • Ambiguities are allowed: Necker Cube.


Five features of Auto-associators

  • Five features of Auto-associators

    • Generalizes automatically.
      • E.g., bottom row is distributed pattern for an animal (parrot). The top row are the features of the category the animal belongs to (feathers, beak, flies). The relationship amongst the features of a category have an intrinsic correlation.
    • 5. Learn from examples, where learning is a change in the weights.


Back Up Slides

  • Back Up Slides



Visual Cliff original footage: http://vimeo.com/77934

  • Visual Cliff original footage: http://vimeo.com/77934



When cause to go  cause to change

  • When cause to go  cause to change

  • When cause to go  cause to have

  • Cause to happen vs happen

  • The physics

  • The manner



Songbirds

  • Songbirds

  • • Male songbirds use their songs to establish a territory.

  • • This serves as a warning to other males and as an invitation to prospective mates.

  • In European Robins, the songs can vary in complicated ways, but the only aspect of this variation

  • that “matters” is the alternation between high and low-pitched notes. This communicates how

  • intensely the robin will defend this territory.

  • Vervet Monkeys

  • • African Vervet monkeys live in close-knit social groups.

  • • They use three distinct “calls” to signal danger.

  • – Snake: Troupe stands on hind legs and scans the ground.

  • – Leopard: Troupe climbs onto smallest branches of nearby trees.

  • – Eagle: Troupe climbs trees but stays close to trunk or dives into dense bushes.



Verbs that allow both locative shifts (e.g., load hay into the wagon, and, load the wagon with hay):

  • Verbs that allow both locative shifts (e.g., load hay into the wagon, and, load the wagon with hay):

    • Brush, dab, daub, plaster, rub, slather, smear, smudge, spread, swab
  • Verbs that are content-loc. and do not permit a shift (e.g., pour water into the glass, but not, pour the glass with water):

    • Dribble, drip, drop, dump, funnel, ladle, pour, shake, siphon, slop, slosh, spill
  • Verbs that are container-loc and do not permit a shift (e.g., drench the shirt with wine, but not, drench wine into the shirt)

    • Adorn, pollute, block, bind, interlace, cover, inundate


Can I fill some salt into the bear?

  • Can I fill some salt into the bear?

  • I’m going to cover a screen over me

  • Feel your hand to that

  • Look, Mom, I’m gonna pour it with water, my belly.

  • I hitted this into my neck

  • The Mooping Test (A Wug Test)

    • Create a word mooping (to move a sponge to a purple cloth turning it green)
    • The verb describes the manner of moving (zigzagging) versus moving which results in the cloth changing colors
    • In motion condition, children and adults use content-locative (mooping the sponge)
    • in color changing condition children and adults use container-locative (mooping the cloth)


Container Locatives

  • Container Locatives

  • Hal is loading the wagon with hay

  • Jared sprayed the roses with water

  • Betsy splashed the wall with paint

  • Jeremy rubbed the wood with oil




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