Involuntary Resettlement Assessment and Measures


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Particulars 
Number of Households 
Percent 
Land Holder Households 
406 
94.4 
Landless Households 
24 
5.6 
Total Households 
430 
100.00 
 
3.2.4  Types of Landholding 
39. 
The total area of landholdings of the 406 surveyed households is 539.03 hectares (the 
average landholding is 1.32 hectares). About 94% of the land is cultivable. Average cultivable 
land holding is 2.76 hectares where as the average uncultivable land holding is 0.64 hectares.  
Table 3.4: Type of Landholding 
Type of Land 
Total Holding (Hectare) 
Average Holding (Hectare) 
Cultivable (irrigated) 
463.83 
1.29 
Cultivable (non-irrigated) 
43.71 
1.47 
Non cultivable (Irrigated) 22.04 
0.08 
Non cultivable (non Irrigated) 9.52 
0.56 
Total irrigated land 
485.80 
1.19 
Total non irrigated land 
53.23 
1.33 
 
3.2.5  Major Cropping Pattern 
40. 
Vegetables and wheat are the major crops being cultivated by households in the project 
area. About 69% of the households that reported having land cultivate vegetables, and 33% 
cultivate wheat. Other crops like rice are cultivated by 11% of the households, maize by 10% 
and cotton is reported by 8% of the households. Cotton is mostly cultivated in the area by fewer, 
larger concerns.  
Table 3.5: Major Cropping Pattern 
Type of Crop 
Number of Households 

Average yield in kilogram 
Wheat   
142 
33.0 
1,213.0 
Rice 48 
11.2 
934.3 
Maize 43 
10.0 
2,057.8 
Vegetables 296 
68.8 
735.8 
Cotton 33 
7.6 
4,899.6 
Others  
75 
17.4 
221.8 
 
3.2.6  Average Annual Income 
41.  Agriculture and business contribute the most to the average annual income of the 
households. The overall average annual income of the households along the project area is 
TJS10,871.53.  

 
 
 
14 
Table 3.6: Average Annual Income 
 
 
3.2.7 Poverty 
42.  The average household size is 8 people per household. Based on the poverty line 
provided by the World Bank for 2009 ($41/month), the annual income required for a household 
of this size would need to be TJS20,300 for a family to be out of poverty. Based on reported 
income data provided by individual households during the survey of affected households of 
October–December 2009, 52% were identified as poor. This is compared to poverty headcount 
data for the region, available from a State Statistical Committee assessment based on 2000 
census data and a living standards survey conducted by the World Bank in 2003,
6
 which gives 
the following poverty headcount data for the project districts: Rudaki–40 to 50%; Gissar–20 to 
30%; Shakhrinav–30 to 40%; and Tursunzade–30 to 40%. It is likely that many incomes 
reported by respondents at the time of the survey are approximate, and do not reflect actual 
household income over the year.  
3.2.8  Average Annual Expenditure 
43.  The total annual average household expenditure is TJS18,562.5 with the main 
expenditure being incurred for food followed by expenditure on clothing, transportation, 
agricultural produce, and health.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                            
6
 University of Southampton, UK/State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Tajikistan (2005). Socio-Economic 
Atlas of Tajikistan 2005.  
Source of Income 
Average Annual Income in TJS 
Agriculture 27,798.0 
Service 6,964.1 
Business 13,217.8 
Labour 8,188.9 
Professional 6,555.9 
Pension 1,661.8 
Any other 
11,714.3 
Total Average 
10,871.5 

 
 
 
15
Table 3.7: Average Annual Expenditure 
 
Type of expenditure 
Average Annual  
Expenditure (TJS) 
% to total 
expenditure 
Food 8,062.60 
43.43 
Transportation 1,733.75 
9.34 
Clothing 2,082.98 
11.22 
Health 1,144.26 
6.16 
Education 592.87 
3.19 
Communication 551.39 
2.97 
Social functions 
778.29 
4.19 
Agriculture (such as seeds, hiring of farm implements etc.) 
1,683.94 
9.07 
Consumption of fuel for household 
978.02 
5.27 
Electric Bill 
362.35 
1.95 
Others  
592.06 
3.19 
Total Average 
18,562.51 
100.00 
 
3.2.9  Possession of Durable Goods 
44. 
Possession of durable goods differs from each household depending on the nature of the 
durable goods. At a minimum, most households possess a television and an LPG connection. 
Refrigerators and radios are owned by nearly half of the households. Computers and air 
conditioners are possessed by 8% and 11% of the households respectively. About 50% of the 
households possess a car. In terms of livestock, 63% of the households possess sheep and 
goats, 29% possess donkeys, 10% possess poultry and only 3.5% have large animals like cows 
and buffalo.  
 
Table 3.8: Possession of Durable Goods 
Item 
Number of Households 

Average Possession 
Radio  
206 
47.9 
1.10 
Bicycle 121 
28.1 
1.15 
Television 417 
97.0 
1.52 
L.P.G Connection/ Gas Cylinder  
368 85.6 
1.31 
Computer 34 
7.9 
1.03 
Refrigerator 201 
46.8 
1.22 
Washing Machine 
86 
20.1 
1.07 
Motor cycle/Scooter 

2.1 
1.00 
Car 216 
50.2 
1.18 
Air Conditioner 
46 
10.7 
1.43 
Sheep and Goats 
271 
63.0 
2.33 
Poultry 44 
10.2 
3.68 
Donkey 124 
28.9 
6.90 
Large Animals (Cows/Buffalo) 
15 
3.5 
1.21 
Total 430 
100 
 
 
3.2.10 Indebtedness 
45. 
Indebtedness among the households in the project affected area is common. About one 
third of the households stated that they had taken loans in the previous year. The loan has been 
from different sources for various households’ needs.  

 
 
 
16 
Table 3.9: Status of Indebtedness 
Particulars 
Number of Households that had taken out loans within the previous year 

Yes 140 
32.6 
No 290 
67.4 
Total 430 
100.0 
 
3.2.11  Access to Schemes/Benefits 
46. 
Few Households avail themselves of government benefit schemes. Only 12 households 
out of 430 covered during the survey reported that they participate in such schemes or benefits.  
Table 3.10: Availability of Scheme Benefit 
Participate in Government Schemes? 
Number of Households 

Yes 
12 2.8 
No 
418 97.2 
Total 
430 100.0 
 
3.2.12  Access to Health Centres 
About 97% of the households stated that they have easy access to health care centers.  
Table 3.11: Access to Health Center 
Easy access to Health Center 
Number of Households 

Yes 
416 96.7 
No 
14 3.3 
Total 
430 100.0 
 
47. 
The average distance from homes to health centers is 3.7 km.  
Table 3.12: Distance of the Health Center 
Distance 
Number of Households 

Within 1 km 
142 
34.1 
1.1 to 2 km 
87 
20.9 
2.1 to 3 km 
63 
15.2 
3.1 to 5 km 
44 
10.6 
5.1 to 10 km 
56 
13.4 
more than 10 km 
24 
5.8 
Total 416 
100.0 
Average distance 
3.7 km 
 
48. 
About 42% of the surveyed households reported that a household member suffered from 
major illness during the last one year whereas 58% of the households did not face any major 
illness.  
Table 3.13: Illness during the Past Year 
Reported Sickness 
Number of Households 

Yes 181 
42.1 
No 249 
57.9 
Total 430 
100.0 
 

 
 
 
17
3.2.13 Migration Pattern 
49. 
Temporary migration for work is equally prevalent in the project influence zone. About 
43% of the surveyed households reported that the household members seek work away from 
home.  
Table 3.14: Migration Pattern 
Migration 
Number of Households 

Yes 184 
42.8 
No 246 
57.2 
Total 430 
100.0 
 
3.2.14  Place of Migration 
50. 
Most workers who work away from home do so outside the country. About 97.3% of the 
household members migrate out of Tajikistan for work, while only a small percentage of 
respondents (2.7%) migrate within Tajikistan, but outside their district.  
 
Table 3.15: Place of Migration 
Place of Migration 
Number of Households 

Outside District 

2.7 
Outside Country 
179 
97.3 
Total 184 
100.0 
 
3.2.15  Occupations of Migrant Workers 
51. 
The majority of the respondents migrate as non-agricultural laborers (48.9%) followed by 
trade and business workers (6.5%) and agricultural laborers (1.7%).  
Table 3.16: Types of Jobs 
Jobs 
Number of Households 

Agricultural laborers 

1.7 
Non agricultural laborers 
90 
48.9 
Trade & business 
12 
6.5 
Others 79 
42.9 
Total 184 
100.0 
 
52.  The average household income is TJS1,139.46 per month as reported by the 142 
households, where family members migrate for work. The rest of the households were unable to 
provide any information on the actual income received from members who work away from 
home. 
3.2.16  Trends in Migration 
53. 
Earners from about 45.6% of the household migrate every alternate year in search of 
work and 31.52% migrate once a year. It was also found that earners from about 18.5% 
households migrate as and when required to seek job opportunities, and members of a few 
(3.3%) households migrate once in every three years.  

 
 
 
18 
Table 3.17: Trends of Migration 
Trends 
Number of Households 

Once a year 
58 
31.5 
Twice a year 

1.1 
Every alternative year 
84 
45.6 
Once in every three years 

3.3 
As and when required 
34 
18.5 
Total 184 
100.0 
 
3.2.17  Season of Migration 
54.  Migration between June and August is very high in the project area. Out of 
184 households reporting migration by members, 136 households (73.9%) reported migration 
during this period. Migration rates between April and May and in the winter, between December 
and February are quite similar in nature, at 11.9% and 14.1% respectively.  
Table 3.18: Season of Migration 
Season 
Number of Households 

Summer (April- May) 
22 
12.0 
Winter (December – February) 
26 
14.1 
Rainy (June –August) 
136 
73.9 
Total 184 
100.0 
 
3.2.18  Education and Literacy 
55. 
The total literacy is reported to be 100%. Among respondents, 66% of females attended 
secondary level education, and nearly 50% of males attended secondary level. Higher 
education at college/university level is attended by 23% of males, and by 6% of females.  
Table 3.19: Literacy Status 
Male Female 
Total 
Education profile 
No. %  No.  % 
No 

Pre-school 
394 
19.4 349 18.6 743 
19.0 
Primary 
167 8.2 171  9.1 338 
8.6 
Secondary 1,007 
49.5 
1,240 66.1 
2,247 
57.5 
College/ 
university 
465 
22.9 112  6.0 577 
14.8 
Illiterate 1 
0.05 3 
0.2 4 
0.1 
Total 2,034 
100.0 
1,875 100.0 3,909 
100.0 
 
3.2.19  Source of Drinking Water 
56. 
The main source of drinking water is from streams. Out of the 430 surveyed households, 
it is noted that 166 (39%) of the households use streams. However 15% reported having access 
to a piped water supply and 6% reported reliance on wells or hand pumps as the source of 
drinking water.  
 
 
 

 
 
 
19
Table 3.20: Source of Drinking Water 
Source 
Number of Households 

Piped water supply 
66 
15.3 
Spring 6 
1.4 
Well 24 
5.6 
Stream 166 
38.6 
Others 168 
39.1 
Total 430 
100.0 
 
3.2.20 Sanitation Facilities 
57. 
About 98.6% of the households surveyed possess a latrine, while 1.4% reported that they 
have a flush toilet.  
Table 3.21: Types of Toilet 
Toilet 
Number of Households 

Flush toilet 

1.4 
Latrine 424 
98.6 
Total 430 
100.0 
 
3.2.21  Usage Pattern of Fuel for Cooking 
58. 
Wood is the major source of fuel being used by the households (98%) for cooking with 
the remainder of the households using electricity or gas. Most of the households are electrified 
and have an LPG gas connection, however, fuelwood and crop residues are most commonly 
used for cooking because of the high price (and low availability) of gas and the high costs of 
electricity.   
Table 3.22: Type of Fuel Use for cooking 
Types of Fuel 
Number of Households 

Electricity 5 
1.1 
Wood 423 
98.4 
Gas 
2 0.5 
Total 430 
100.0 
 
 
3.2.22  Status on Electrification 
59. 
About 98.4% of the households have access to electrical power, and 1.6% have no 
power supply 
Table 3.23: Connected to Central Power Supply 
Whether connected 
Number of Households 

Yes 423 
98.4 
No 
7 1.6 
Total 
430 100.0 
 
 
 

 
 
 
20 
3.2.23  Interior Details of Structure 
60. 
The average number of rooms per structure is 5.5, out of which the average number of 
heated rooms is 2.3.  
Table 3.24: Interior Details of Structures 
Particulars Total 
Average Number of rooms in House/Structure 
5.5 
Average Heated Rooms 
2.3 
 
 
3.3 
Socio-economic data relevant to Women 
61. 
Women are primarily involved in household level natural resource based activities such 
as horticulture, sericulture, and animal husbandry (76%), and about 72% reported household 
work. About 8% of the women in the surveyed households participate in trade/business work 
and 6% work as agricultural laborers. On further questioning, it was found 69 (16%) of the 
respondent households receive income in part from women.  
Table 3.25: Type of Activities for Women 
Activities 
Number of Households 

Allied Activities 
328 
76.3 
Collection and Sale of forest products 
12 
2.8 
Trade & Business 
33 
7.6 
Agricultural Labour 
27 
6.3 
Non Agricultural Labour 

1.4 
HH Industries (Tailoring, Cooking for sales etc) 
12 
2.8 
Service 
14 3.2 
Household Work 
309 
71.8 
Others  
25 5.8 
Total 
430 100.0 
 
62. 
Women participate equally in household decision making (99.5%), illustrating an active 
role of women in the family. 
Table 3.26: Women’s Say in Decision Making 
Issues 
Number of Households 
%  
Yes 
428 99.5 
No 
2 0.5 
Total 
430 100.0 
 

 
 
 
21
63. 
A breakdown of the participation of women in specific issues is given in figure 3.27.
 
Table 3.27: Women’s Participation on Different Types of Issue 
Issues 
Number of Households 

 Financial matters 
424 
98.6 
 Children’s education 
427 
99.3 
 Children’s health care 
428 
99.5 
 Purchase of assets 
425 
98.8 
 Day to day activities 
428 
99.5 
 Social functions and marriages 
428 
99.5 
Others 126 
29.3 
 
64. 
The project will pay particular attention to ensure that women are the recipients of the 
compensation pertaining to their activities and to ensure that women, who are de-facto 
household heads are clearly listed as beneficiaries of compensation. Women will also be 
participants in the consultation processes to determine and negotiate compensation 
entitlements and implement the LARP. Special attention will be given to the impact of 
resettlement on women and other vulnerable groups during monitoring and evaluation of the 
LARP. The project will have a positive impact on gender, because the civil works contracts will 
include provisions to encourage employment of women during implementation, and women will 
be encouraged to participate in activities to monitor program impacts.  
3.4 
 Impact on Indigenous Peoples and Other Social Issues 
65. 
No impacts on Indigenous Peoples are expected for the project. The project will primarily 
affect Tajik people who form 82% of the total population followed by the Uzbeks who form 18%. 
The Uzbek groups have been fully integrated into institutional, cultural, and economic processes 
in Tajikistan, and they do not display sufficient unique features to classify them as a distinct 
minority group. Neither group can be considered to be distinguished by a social or cultural 
identity distinct from the dominant or mainstream society, or by vulnerability to disadvantage by 
the proposed development. The preparation of an Indigenous Peoples’ Development Plan, is 
therefore not required, according to the ADB’s Safeguardson Indigenous Peoples. 
66. 
Other vulnerable groups such as women headed households have been well addressed 
with additional assistance by the project as mentioned in the entitlements. The project will 
include appropriate measures to mitigate the potential risk of HIV/AIDS and other sexually 
transmitted infections, as well as drug and human trafficking. These measures include raising 
public awareness raising on these issues. Civil works contracts will include provisions requiring 
contractors to take measures to protect construction workers from the risks of HIV/AIDS and 
other sexually transmitted infections, and giving construction workers time to be tested or 
receive treatment. The HIV/AIDS and Migration project, $0.5 million ADB–financed grant, was 
recently completed. It was designed to mitigate the risks of HIV and sexually-transmitteed 
infections (STI) in a context characterized by cross-border seasonal migration and human 
trafficking. Ministry of Health was the executing agency. It has developed an integrated, 
community-based and gender-responsive approach to the prevention of HIV/AIDS and STIs.   

 
 
 
22 
 
 
4.0 
RESETTLEMENT POLICY, LEGAL FRAMEWORK AND ENTITLEMENT 
4.1 General 
 
67. 
The policy framework for the project is based on the Legislation of Republic of Tajikistan, 
the ADB Safeguards Policy Statement of 2009 and Operations Manual F1 on Safeguards 
(2010),In the legislation of Tajikistan, there is no special law or policy which regulates the issues 
of resettlement and/or land acquisition or expropriation of rights to land and immovable property 
for state or public needs. Moreover, there is no separate law which completely provides norms 
and mechanisms for the determination of a full, fair, market value of land. The key legislative 
acts regulating land management relations and the ownership rights to immovable properties in 
Republic of Tajikistan are the following: 
 

 Constitution of Republic of Tajikistan (1994, as amended in 2003)
7
  

 Land Code (as amended in 2008)
8
  

 Civil Code (as amended in 2007
)
9
 

 Regulation “about compensation of losses to the land users and losses of agricultural 
products” (approved by the Decree of Government of Republic of Tajikistan, 2000. 

 515)
10
 
 
68. 
The Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan, the Land Code of the Republic of Tajikistan 
and the Civil Code of the Republic of Tajikistan are the fundamental laws on which the 
legislation is based. The applicable Laws, regulations and policies are briefly summarized 
below. Based on the analysis of the applicable laws and policies and ADB’s Safeguards 
requirement, project related LAR principles have been adopted. 
4.2 
Policy and Legal Framework for Land Acquisition and Resettlement 
69. 
The framework for the project is based on the ADB requirements on Resettlement as 
embedded in the Safeguards Policy Statement (2009) and on the ADB Operations Manual F1 
on the Safeguard Policy Statement (2010), the Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan, and 
the Land Code of the Republic of Tajikistan. Where differences exist between local law and 
ADB policies and practices, the resettlement for this project will be resolved in favor of the latter. 


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