Republic of tajkistan


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Particulars 
 
 
Section 2 
 
Section 3 
Section 4 
Section 5 
Name of the 
Section 
West Gate to 
Gissar Junction
Gissar 
Junction to 
Shakhrinav  
Shakhrinav 
to 
Tursunzade  
Tursunzade to 
the Uzbekistan 
border  
Length  
13.9 km 
20.7 km 
10.6 km 
11.7 km 
Type of 
Construction 
(four-lane 
widening) 
(four-lane 
widening) 
(four-lane 
widening) 
(two-lane - 
reconstruction) 
1. Rudaki 
1. Gissar  
Rayons 
2.Gissar 2.Shakhrinav 
1.Tursunzade 1.Tursunzade 
1.Navobod 
2.MirzoRizo 
3.Dehqonobod 
4.Chuzi 
5.Sabo 
6.Selbur 
Jamoats 
 
 
1. Choryakkoron 
2. Khonaqo 
  
7.Shakhrinav 
 
 
 
1.Qaratogh 
2.Seshanbe 
  
  
 
 
1. Gharav  
2. Navobod             
3. 1
st
 May  
 
 
22. 
Summary of Impacts. Widening will take place for Section 2 (West Gate to Gissar 
Junction), Section 3 (Gissar Junction to Shakhrinav) and Section 4 (Shakhrinav to Tursunzade), 
which will require additional land acquisition and resettlement. Section 5 (Tursunzade to the 
Uzbekistan border) will comprise rehabilitation and improvement of the existing two lane road, 
and requires land acquisition and resettlement at certain points.  
 

 
 
 
 
 
Figure 1 
Project Location Map 
 
 
 
1.5    LARP Background 
23. 
The preparation of the LARP for the entire Project involves the following stages:  
 
1.  Initially, Draft LARP was prepared in early 2010, based on the preliminary design 
prepared as part of the advanced feasibility study for the Project. It was prepared 
under the assumption that the whole land acquisition and resettlement process will be 
implemented in one stage, after the contractor completes the detailed design. 
Considering the time necessary for the finalization of the road alignment and detailed 
design for the entire road, the preparation, scrutiny and implementation of a single 
stage LARP would take at least 8 months after the award of the civil works contract. 
To enable the contractor to commence the works in 2011, during the Contract for 
Preparatory Procurement and Safeguard Support Services, which started in October 
2010, MOT decided to finalize the road alignment on four longer road segments, 
based on the preliminary design. Such a ‘fixing’ of the design corridor facilitated the 
finalization of LARP I.   
 
2.  LARP I is based on the final measurements conducted in the period November 2010 
- January 2011. The measurements were taken with reference to the fixed road 
alignments (road centerline and offsets). The LAR survey team comprised an 
international resettlement specialist, two local social specialists, a local engineer, a 
surveyor and additional field support staff provided by hukumats. Representatives of 
the responsible hukumats, Inter-district Bureau for Technical Directory (MBTI) and 
representatives of the Land Committees and the State Committee on Investment and 
State Property Management of the Republic of Tajikistan worked together with the 
LAR team. 
 

 
 
18 
3.  LARP Phase II will include the road segments for which the alignment is finalized, but 
which are shorter than 4.4 km as well as the other road segments, which require 
completed detailed design. Consequently, LARP II will be finalised only after the 
entire road alignment is finalized by the contractor.   
 
 
1.6    Detailed Survey and Measurement Procedure 
24.  During the preparation of LARP I, the team measured the offsets from the fixed road 
centerline at cross-section points spaced at 25-50m. Where an entire structure was affected 
because a negligible part of land was required for embankment or another part of the road, the 
engineers noted the location and amended the preliminary design by adding a retaining wall or 
they changed the road centerline where it was practicable. Such practice saved a number of 
existing walls and structures along the road.   
 
25.  Each affected owner was present during the measurement of the affected assets. The 
owner him/herself (where it was practicable) actually measured the assets and gave the 
information on trees and other affected assets. Special attention was given to the recording of 
the affected assets. Three copies of the resettlement form were prepared for each resettlement 
case. The resettlement form was completed immediately after the measurements were done 
and in presence of the owner. When completed, the form was given to the owner for checking. If 
the owner agreed with the measurements, s/he signs the form. In case of disagreement, the 
measurement was repeated jointly with the owner. In addition, the measurement form was 
verified and signed by the Hukumat representative and by a local resettlement specialist (CRP 
Representative). Each of the signatories received one copy of the measurement form for their 
records.  
 
26.  Apart from the physical measurements of affected assets, the information on 
entitlements, rights and procedure for complains and other relevant information, were given to 
each affected person, regardless of the information received during the Draft LARP preparation. 
Photographs of each affected assets were also taken and filed with other records for each land 
acquisition or resettlement case 
 
27. 
Every resettlement case was checked against the information included in the draft LARP. 
All additional cases (due to the fixed road alignment) were recorded as new cases. Conversely, 
if the detailed survey showed that a property that was already recorded in the Draft LARP, was 
not going to be affected any more, due to the precise measurement or a changed design, the 
owner is informed and the case taken off the list.  
 
 
28. 
Public Consultation and Due Diligence. The draft LARP and the LARP I are prepared 
in consultation with the stakeholders, especially the local people. Information about the Project 
and the cut-off date for compensation claims were well publicized in the local media during the 
preparation of the Draft LARP. The assessment of losses and land acquisition is based on the 
feasibility study conducted during the preparation of the Draft LARP and the exact 
measurements of the affected assets done during the finalization of the LARP I. The district 
authorities have ratified the survey results.   
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
2. BASELINE 
INFORMATION ON LAND ACQUISITION AND 
RESETTLEMENT 
2.1   General  
29.  The Preparation of the LARP was based on an extensive Impact survey and census of 
the AP. The survey was concluded on November 29,2009. This date is held as the entitlements 
cut-off date for this LRP. This section covers the baseline information on the Project’s land 
acquisition and resettlement impacts.. The compensation and rehabilitation measures, and the 
cost estimates were prepared based on this information.  
 
 
2.2    Impact Assessment 
2.2.1    Agricultural land 
30.  The first phase of land acquisition will affect 138 land parcels of agricultural land for a 
total of 15 hectares. Most of the acquired land area is used for annual crops cultivation. In Table 
2.1, the number of agricultural plots and affected households is shown in the same columns. It 
should be noted that, for practical reasons, Collective Dekhan Farms and Supportive Farms, 
which can be owned by thousands of persons, were counted as one household. There was a 
total of 10 such farms (refer to Table 2.3
 
Table 2.1 
Affected agricultural land by cultivation type 
 
Segment 1 
Segment 2 
Segment 3 
Segment 4 
Total  
Type of 
Cultivation 
Area 
(m
2

No.of 
plots/
HHs 
Area 
(m
2

No. of 
plots/
HHs 
Area 
(m
2

No,of 
plots/
HHs 
Area 
(m
2

No. of 
plots/ 
HHs 
Area 
(m
2

No. of 
plots/ 
HHs 
Annual 
Crops 
21,225 5/5 
31,895
62/62
40,300
36/36
41,024
30/30 134,444
133/133
Orchard 
- -  -
-
11,600
4/4
-

11,600
4/4
Vineyard 
- -  -
-
4,000
1/1
-

4,000
1/1
Total 
21,225 5/5 
31,895
62/62
55,900
41/41
41,024
30/30 150,044
138/138
 
 
2.2.2   Residential and commercial land 
31. 
Under the first phase of the LAR, 6,985.30 m

of residential and commercial land will be 
acquired for the Project, affecting 81 plots of land. The following table shows the survey and 
detailed measurement data of the affected properties provided by the district administration.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
20 
Table 2.2 
Affected residential and commercial land
2
 
 
Road segment 1  Road segment 2
Road segment 3  Road segment 4 
Total  
Area 
(m
2

No of 
plots/ 
HHs 
Area 
(m
2

No of 
plots/ 
HHs 
Area 
(m
2

No of 
plots/ 
HHs 
Area 
(m
2

No of 
plots/ 
HHs 
Area 
(m
2

No of 
plots/ 
HHs 
2,045.26 18/18 1,155.10 12/12 3,064.44
15/15 720.50
36/36 6,985.30  81/81
 
 
2.2.3    Property status of affected land 
32. 
Agricultural Land. Based on the bundle of rights granted to land users, the affected 
agricultural land can be categorized as (i) collective Dekhan Farms, (ii) Individual Dekhan 
Farms, (iii) Family Dekhan Farms, (iv) Presidential Land and (v) Supportive Farms. Dekhan 
Farms are those for which full user rights, but not the ownership, are given either to individuals 
(Individual Dekhan Farms) or to groups (Collective Dekhan Farms). Similarly, under the 
Presidential decree, certain persons were granted only user’s rights over the Presidential Land, 
but not the ownership. Supported Farms include the land provided to different government 
institutions for self-assistance to their members and employees. 
 
33. 
Most of the acquired agricultural land belongs to Individual Dekhan Farms (60 cases) or it 
is a part of Presidential Land (56 plots), while the other categories are less affected. All affected 
land users possess legal land rights over the land that will be acquired for the project. The 
property status of the affected agricultural land, by road segment, is given in the following table. 
 
Table 2.3 
Affected agricultural land  
 
Road segment 

Road segment 

Road segment 

Road segment 

Total 
Type of 
ownership 
Area 
(m
2

No of 
plots 
Area 
(m
2

No of 
plots 
Area 
(m
2

No of 
plots 
Area 
(m
2

No of 
plots 
Area 
(m
2

No of 
plots 
Presidential 
-  
-  
2,445
27
1,200
12
2,602
17 
6,247
56
Individual 
Dekhan Farm 
7,100 3 
8,020
34
5,800
11
31,767
12 
52,687
60
Family 
Dekhan
 Farm 
-  
-  


11,900
12

 - 
11,900
12
Collective 
Dekhan Farm 
14,125 2 
21,430
1
36,100
5
6,655

78,310
9
Support Farm 
-  
-  


900
1

 - 
900
1
Total 
21,225 5 
31,895
62
55,900
41
41,024
30 
150,044
138
 
                                                            
2
 
As in Table 2.1, for comparison purposes, the number of agricultural plots and affected households is presented 
in the same columns.  
 

 
 
 
34. 
Residential Land. Under articles 11 and 12 of the Land Code, the holders of residential 
and commercial land have permanent and inheritable use rights. The summary information on 
the extent of the affected residential and commercial land is shown in Table 2.2.  
 
 
2.2.4    Annual crops 
35.  Wheat, Lucerne and cotton are the most frequently cultivated annual crops on the 
affected land. The least affected crops are potatoes and onions. More annual crops are affected 
on road segments 3 and 4 than on the segments 1 and 2. The distribution of annual crops on 
the affected land is presented in Table 2.4. 
 
Table 2.4 
Crops impacts by crop type and area and segments 
 
Affected area (m2) 
Road 
segment 1 
Road 
segment 2 
Road 
segment 3 
Road 
segment 4 
Crops 
7.55 km - 
14.12 km 
17.06 km - 
21.5 km 
26.5 km - 
34 km 
43.8 km - 
61.55 km 
Total 

Wheat - 
 
17,130
35,800
7,944
60,874 
42.96
Lucerne 20,725 
11,950
800

33,475 
23.63
Onion  
500 
540
2,500
2,475
6,015 
4.25
Vegetables - 
 
2,225
1,000

3,225 
2.28
Tomatoes 

 
- 200
- 200 
0.14
Potatoes 

 50
- - 
50 
0.04
Paddy - 
 


7,244
7,244 
5.11
Cotton - 
 


30,605
30,605 
21.60
Total 21,225 
31,895
40,300
48,268
141,688 
100
 
 
2.2.5    Perennial crops 
36.  As shown in Table 2.1, 11,600 m² of orchards will be lost on four plots and 4,000 m² of 
vineyards on one plot of land. In total, 283 fruit trees on residential plots will be removed in the 
first phase of LAR. The most affected trees are small cherries (74), grapes (44) and 
pomegranates (39), (Table 2.5). Trees, which could be safely replanted, were not counted as 
affected. The average price for 1 kg of fruit on residential and agriculture land varies for different 
sorts of the same fruit type (i.e. price of grapes and apples).  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
22 
Table 2.5  
Fruit trees on residential' plots 
 
Affected fruit 
trees 
Unit 
Road 
segment 

Road 
segment 

Road 
segment 

Road 
segment 

Total 
Average 
yearly 
yield 
(kg/ per 
tree) 
Average 
market 
value of 
product 
(TJS/kg) 
Years for 
tree 
replacement 
Apple / Себ 
No 2 
11
3
2
18
40 
4 3
Cherry / Гелос 
No
 
4 -
12
1
17
25 5 
2
Small cherry / 
Олуча 
No
 
26 -
42
6
74
20 4 
2
Peach / 
Шафтолу 
No
 
1 -
1
-
2
15 5 
2
Apricot / 
Зардолу 
No
 
3 5
8
-
16
50 2 
2
Pomegranate 
No
 
- -
39
-
39
25 6 
2
Walnut tree / 
Чормагз 
No
 
19 5
10
-
34
50 6 
4
Grapes / Ангур 
No
 
10 2
23
9
44
25 6 
4
Mulberry /Тут 
No
 
5 3
5
-
13
30 3 
2
Khurmo 
No
 
20 -
-
6
26
50 1 
3
Total 90 
26
143
24
283
  
  
 
 
 
37. 
Fruit trees on agriculture land are found only at Dekhan farms along the road segment 3 
(refer to Table 2.6).  In total, 231 fruit trees will be cut and removed during the phase I of LARP. 
The time to re-grow a new fruit tree varies from 2 to 4 years. The total yearly production loss will 
be 7,455 kg of fruits.  
 
Table 2.6 
Fruit trees on agriculture land 
 
Fruit 
trees 
Dekhan 
farms' 
land (m²) 
Number 
of trees 
Average  
production  
(kg/per tree) 
Total yearly 
production 
(kg) 
Value of 1 kg of 
at average market 
price (TJS) 
Annual fruit value 
to be compensated 
(TJS) 
Years for tree 
replacement 
Peach 300  22
25
550
5
2,475 
2
Grapes 1,400 
35
25
875
5
4,375 
4
Cherry 4,000  62
25
1,550
5
7,750 
2
Apple 9,900  112
40
4,480
3
13,440 
3
Total 15,600  231
115
7,455
 
28,040 
 
 
 
2.2.6   Structures and buildings 
38. 
The land acquisition will affect a number of residential and commercial buildings, sheds, 
building attachments and structures such as walls and fences. In total, 161 structures will be 
affected during the LARP I phase. A summary of the affected buildings by category and type for 
each road segment is given in Table 2.7. Information on the affected walls, fences and other 
miscellaneous assets is summarized in Table 2.8.  
 
 
 

 
 
 
Table 2.7 
Affected buildings, shops, sheds and outbuildings 
 
Road segment 1 
Road segment 2 
Road segment 3 
Road segment 4 
7.5 km - 14.1 km 
17.1 km - 21.5 km 
26.5 km - 34 km 
43.8 km - 61.5km 
Total for 
LARP I 
Affected 
buildings per 
type 
Volume 
m3 
No 
Volume 
m3 
No 
Volume 
m3 
No 
Volume 
m3 
No 
Volume 
m3 
No 
Multi- storey  


451.4
1
-
-


451.4
1
Single floor 
cement  
201.3 2 
180.5
4
-
-
27.5  1 
409.3
7
Single floor 
burnt -brick  
676.4 3 
133.9
1
624
1
-  - 
1,434.3
5
Single floor 
mud-brick  
84.7 1 160
3
-
-
33  1 
277.7
5
Single floor 
mud-walls  
96 1 105
1
327.6
1
192  1 
720.6
4
Sheds/area  166.5  8  83
2
54
3
55.5  2  359
15
Outbuildings 
(toilets, barns, 
cattle barns, etc.) 
1,113.0 19  298
5
397.3
9
336 

2,144.3
41
Total 2,337.9 
34 
1,411.9
17
1,402.9
14
644 13 
5,796.6
78
 
Sheds are calculated in m
2
, while buildings and out buildings (toilets, barns, etc.) are assessed in cubic meters (m
3

 
 
Table 2.8 
Affected walls, fences and miscellaneous items
 
 
Road segment 1 
Road segment 2 
Road segment 3 
Road segment 4 
7.5 km - 14.1 km 
17.1 km - 21.5km 
26.5 km - 34 km 
43.8 km - 61.5 km 
Total for LARP I 
Wall, fences and 
miscellaneous 
items 
Volume 
m3 
No 
Volume 
m3 
No 
Volume 
m3 
No 
Volume 
m3 
No 
Volume 
m3 
No 
Concrete Wall 
56.7

37.9
7
41.5
6
49.2 
11 
185.3
30
Cement blocks 
wall 
70.7
4 22.1
3
71.3
5
67.9  8 
231.9
20
Burnt Bricks 
Wall -

-
-
-
-
2.0 

2.0
1
Mud-bricks Wall 
17.5

28.3
4
3.5
1
18.3 

67.5
10
Mud wall 
79.9

14.4
2
-
-
175.9 

270.2
11
Wire netting 
fences sq. meter 
-
- -
-
80.4
2
10.0 

90.4
3
Metal sheet 
fences sq. meter 
-

-
-
96.0
2
52.8 

148.8
4
Concrete 
surfaces 15.6

-
-
-
-


15.6
2
Ovens 13.3

-
-
2.0
1


15.3
2
Total 254
19 
103
16
295
17
376 
31 
1,027
83
 
2.2.7    Impact on community and government structures 
39.  During the implementation of the LARP I, two police posts, (Rudaki and Gisor), one 
storage building of the local Road and Communication Maintenance Department, garden walls 

 
 
24 
of two mosques and three cemetery walls will be affected. The police posts will be rebuilt on the 
remaining portions of the plots. The land acquisition will affect only marginal area of the land 
plots on which mosques or cemeteries are located; however, it will not affect any graves. As 
discussed with the district hukumats and administrators, the government will pay all cost of 
rebuilding/repairing the affected community structures and government facilities. Accordingly, 
these costs are included in the budget. 
  
 
 
2.2.8   Impact on businesses 
40. 
Nine businesses will be affected during the LAR I activities. These businesses are owned 
by 6 persons: 3 persons own a single business, and another 3 persons own 2 affected 
businesses, each (refer to Appendix 8). Only one person, who operates 2 businesses on a 
single plot of land need to be relocated and the relocation plot has been already assigned. The 
total area of that plot of land is 173m2 and the owner will be relocated to a land plot of 600m2.  
  
41. 
The remaining 7 businesses have minor area of land affected and will be compensated 
on a cash-for-land basis as the remaining area of the buildings and the location allowes for 
shops reconstruction.  The affected businesses which do not need relocation, can be restored in 
a relatively short time. All affected business will be compensated for the loss of income, losses 
due to a possible stoppage of work, resettlement costs during the transition period and transport 
costs, where applicable (for details, please refer to section 10).  
 
 
2.2.9   Impact on employment 
42. 
No commercial employees were identified in the Project area. All affected businesses are 
small-scale business and are operated by owners and family members.  
 
 
2.3    Census of Affected Households/Persons  
2.3.1   Total Affected Households/Persons 
43. 
A summary of Affected households and persons is presented in the following table. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
Table 2.9 
Affected Households and Persons by Category and Impact 
 
Number of Affected HHs 
Category of Impact  
(x impact 
type) 
Absolute (Without 
double counting) 
Net 
Number 
of APs 
Remarks  
A. Land  
A1. Residential / Commercial land  
81
81
648    
A2. Agricultural Land 
138
137
1,096    
Sub-total (A) 
219
218
1,744    
B. Crops /Trees 
B1. Loss of Crop Bearing Land 
176
0

Included in A1 
and A2 
Sub-total (crops) 
176
0
-    
C. Business/Income Losses 
C1. Small business losses 
9
0
-  Included in A1 
Sub-Total (C) 
9
0
-    
D. Permanent Structures 
D1. Residential / Commercial / 
Community Structures  
78
0
-  Included in A1 
Sub-total (D) 
78
0
-    
E. Total (A+B+C+D) 
 
218
1.744    
 
 
44.  The special focus of the resettlement and compensation surveys was on the woman-
headed households. There are 45 affected woman-headed households and 173 affected 
couples’ households. The gender-segregated data by impact category were not collected 
separately. Assessment of impact on both, men and women, was based on the number of 
affected households. The rationale behind this approach was that the whole families were 
affected regardless of gender, age or dependency.   
 
 
2.3.2    Severity of impact 
45. 
The adopted threshold for severe impact is 10% of one year’s income. The holders of the 
rights to use agricultural land who lose more than 10% of their plot are deemed to be severely 
affected. In the first phase of the resettlement process, 51 household will lose more than 10% of 
their agricultural land. In case of business losses, the Affected households will receive a full 
year’s income and it is therefore assumed that the severity of impact is addressed by that 
compensation. The number of Affected households by segment is given in the following table. 
 
 
 

 
 
26 
Table 2.10 
Severity of impact 
 
Number of Households 
Severity of Impact 
Road 
segment 1 
Road 
segment 2 
Road 
segment 3 
Road 
segment 4 
Total 
Loss of agricultural 
land >10% 
-
20
14
17 51
Relocated AP 
1
1
1
 
3
Total 
1
21
15
17 54
 
 
2.4    Impact on Vulnerable Households 
46.  Vulnerable households are those formed by poor people and /or headed by single 
women. The categorization of poor is based on the reported income data collected during the 
census survey. The poverty line is taken as TJS 180 per month, based on the poverty line 
published in the World Bank Country Briefing for Tajikistan (2009) of $ 41 per month, and an 
exchange rate of TJS4.41 per USD. Overall, 28 woman-headed households will be affected by 
LARP I. Out of these, eleven households live below the poverty line. There are 17 woman-
headed households, which are, according to the set vulnerability criteria, assessed as not being 
vulnerable. The total number of vulnerable households in the first phase is 69. The information 
on vulnerable households by road segment is given in the following table.  
 
Table 2.11 
Vulnerable households 
 
Number of Affected Households 
Vulnerability 
Road 
segment 1 
Road 
segment 2 
Road 
segment 3 
Road 
segment 4 
Total 
Below poverty line only 
-
28
15
15 
58
Both woman headed and 
below poverty line 
1
2
2

11
Total 1
30
17
21 
69
 
 
2.4.1    Ethnic composition of affected households 
47.  The population of the entire Project area is made up of Tajik and Uzbek people. Out of 
the affected households, 82.4% are Tajik, 17.3% Uzbek, and 0.4% Kyrgyz. None of these 
groups fits the ADB definition of Indigenous People (for a more detailed explanation, refer to 
sub-section 4.4 of this report). 
 
 
2.4.2    Family types 
48. 
Most of the households are joint families in nature, in which parents and married children 
live in the same house. In such households, the senior male is usually the nominated head of 
the household, and is the one responsible for receiving and distributing compensation 
payments.   

 
 
 
 
3.    LAND COMPENSATION AND RESETTLEMENT STRATEGY AND 
ACTUAL RELOCATION NEEDS  
3.1    Land Compensation Strategy 
49. 
The legally based land compensation method that exists in Tajikistan is compensation 
with replacement land, or, the land-for-land compensation. The Government and the local 
population prefer this approach if the adjoining or nearby land to the affected plot is readily 
available. Furthermore, land market is almost non-existent as people rarely sell their lands. The 
current practice is to allocate a replacement plot of 800 m
2
 (600 m

in towns) residential land to 
citizens affected by land acquisition especially those who have lost significant portions of their 
plots in land acquisition. For the land used for commercial purposes, the replacement plots may 
be provided in proportion with the business requirement of the AP.  
 
50. 
In case of road widening, most holders of the use-rights lose very narrow strips of land. 
Practical difficulties therefore arise with regard to re-allocation of a new land plot. Contiguous 
plots with the affected land are seldom available, and the provision of a small land plot far away 
from the affected plot is not practicable and may not be economically justified. It has to be noted 
that the identification of plots available for redistribution and comparable in productivity/value to 
the land lost, may be difficult. Also, the elaboration of a land re-distribution scheme may be very 
complicated and costly. This applies not only to agricultural land but more generally also to 
residential/commercial land.   
 
51. 
Based on the above therefore the Government agreed that for this project Land could be 
(with a few exceptions detatiled below) compensated in principle in cash. Extensive work was 
done to justify and operationalize through specific arrangements this new practice which is 
supported by the precedents of specific Projects such as the Tajikistan-Afghanistan Border 
transmission line.  
 
52. 
Beside the need to justify the new practice another challeng was presented  by the need 
to find a legally acceptable methodology for the monetary valuation of the affected  Land at 
replacement costs. This was so because no Tajikistan  law/by-law has prescriptions in tis sense 
and because in the Country there are no official land markets. The issue was easier to solve  for 
agricultural land where replacement value can be derived based on the productive potential of 
the affected plots but was more complex for residential/commercial land, which is usually prices  
based on market value anabsence of land markets a different approach had to be found. The 
two approches chosen for agricultural and residential/commercial land are described in the next 
sections. . During the Project preparation, several options were considered including paying for 
land at tax rates, or  The valuation approach adopted for the Project for agricultural, residential 
and commercial land is discussed in the following sections. 
 
 
3.1.1   Compensation and valuation for the loss of agricultural land  
53.  The agreed agricultural land valuation mechanism for the Project is based on an 
assessment of the productivity, or income generation capacity of the affected plots. Valuation is 
made by considering the value of the product of the land for a period sufficiently long to 
guarantee the rehabilitation of the affected persons. The critical point in determining the period 
is that the level of compensation must be sufficient to re-establish livelihood of the APs. The 
period selected is 5 years at gross market value (inclusive of inputs and labor) of the yearly 

 
 
28 
produce of  annual crops land.
3
 Such a formula provides a solid capital that the APs can invest 
to improve the land remaining to them and it can represent land replacement cost. 
 
54. 
As the land affected by the Project is assigned to the land users based on different types 
of land-use rights some are individual others are collective) the issue of who was the beneficiary 
of the compensation for each type of land-use right category had to be elaborated. Details are 
provided below:. 
 
•  Individual Dekhan Farms belong to individuals and compensation for any type of affected 
assets belongs to the individual owner. Accordingly, compensation for affected agricultural 
land is provided to the owner.  
 
•  Family Dekhan Farm: Under this category  of farm ownership, the land is provided to 
families which make all decisions on farm use, and any type of compensation or 
entitlements provided to such farms. In such cases, the head of a family (to whose name the 
farm is registered) will receive the compensation entitlements. In such cases, it is not 
possible to interfere into family decision-making processes and require equal distribution of 
compensation among all family members. However, the whole family uses same assets 
whether it is a house, a building or a farm.    
 
•  Collective Dekhan Farms are larger farms that include land, buildings, machinery and 
other resources belonging to a group of people. Each member of a collective Dekhan Farm 
has  equal rights and responsibilities within the farm and is entitled to equal share of all farm 
assets. All decisions are made collectively at monthly or any other meetings of the farm’s 
members. Any individual or a group of individuals within the collective Dekhan Farm has the 
right to establish their individual or a smaller collective Dekhan Farm. However, these kind of 
issues have to be formally discussed by the farm members at a general meeting. Such 
individuals/groups have the right not only to land but also to other assets of the collective 
farm, such as machinery, buildings, funds, etc and their share is divided at the general 
meetings. Any compensation payable to a collective Dekhan Farms,  as any other asset, 
belongs to all members who have equal share of the compensation. The received amount of 
money will be distributed among the members of the Dekhan Farms or invested in the farm 
development, depending on the collective members’ decision.  
 
•  Supportive Farms include the land provided to different government institutions regulated 
by special rules and use requirements. In some cases such land plots are used by 
employees of these institutions for cropping and supporting the institution and people’s own 
livelihoods but without any ownership rights. It means that when an employee leaves 
institution, his/her rights and responsibilities for the use of such lands end. The 
compensation for the loss of land in this category is provided to the institutions which own 
the land of a supporting farm. 
                                                            
3
 In absence of available market prices for agricultural land, it is difficult to determine whether the land use 
rights allowances actually correspond to land replacement cost, which is the ADB SPS policy provision 
ensuring the AP's rehabilitation. For the Project, AP rehabilitation is pursued by providing 5  and 1 years 
of income for annual crops land and perennial crops land, respectively. The methodology used is based 
on undiscounted gross income (which with productive expenses estimated at 50% of the land annual 
income is assumed to be the double of the annual profit). These amounts provide the APs with a capital 
which can be reinvested in their remaining land or in other investment opportunities. Considering that all 
APs will retain most of their plots and that their livelihood is not threatened, this capital is deemed 
sufficient to allow for the full rehabilitation of the agricultural land losses caused by the Project.   

 
 
 
 
3.1.2    Compensation and valuation for the loss of residential/commercial land  
55. 
The valuation of these land categories presented particular challenges as residential and 
commercial land has no intrinsic productive value. Various options were considered. One was to 
hire independent assessors to devise an acceptable valuation  methodology but was then 
discarded because too complicated and difficult to apply legally in the context of the Project. 
Most of the independent assessors available in the country focus on mass valuation for taxation 
purposes and for the establishment of lease payments. Another option considered was to 
compensate this land as agricultural land planted with a standard crop plus the replacement 
value of improvements such as house embankment water supply and electricity supply. Also 
this option was consired unsatisfying and un-fitting the principle of replacement cost. A final 
option was considered and agreed as an interim measure with the Land Committee. This is that 
when losses of residential/commercial land are too small to be practically compensated via 
replacement plots cash compensation could be provided. In absence of official market rates the 
valuation methodology agreed  considers the annual lease value of the land and based on 
international standards on the average number of years of lease payments necessary to pay for 
the asset. Based on this  approach the users of residential/commercial land will be paid the 
current lease rate project areas ($1,000 per hectare) multiplied by 25 years,
4
. This 
compensation corresponds to a unit rate of $2.5 per m
2
.  
 
56. 
This compensation approach
 
was explained to and discussed and agreed with the 
affected persons during the community consultations held in each Rayon before the finalization 
of LARP.  
 
3.2    Relocation Strategy 
57. 
The resettlement strategy formulated for the Project is based on different principles for 
losses of agricultural/orchard land and for losses of residential/commercial land. 
 
 
3.2.1    Agricultural Land 
58. 
The compensation of this type of land is based on cash compensation only. This 
approach has been chosen since the unit impacts are too small to justify both logistically and 
economically the provision of replacement plots. 
 
 
3.2.2    Residential/commercial Land  
59. 
For this type of land  the main compensation strategy is plain cash compensation. However, 
in a very few cases, where relocation of the occupants of these plots is necessary a, land  for land 
compensation approach with serviced relocation plots has been adopted. The relocated families  
will also be paid a cash allowance for the resettlement costs and other related entitlements. This 
strategy responds to the need of minimizing resettlement as much as practicable. The affected 
households losing a house or a shop and retaining enough space in the original plot to rebuild 
their buildings will not be relocated. In such cases, the affected household will reconstruct their 
lost buildings in the old plot and receive compensation in cash for the section of the plot lost.. 
                                                            
4
 The allowances for the loss of residential land based on 25 years of rental income. This reflects the 
average rental income period needed to recover the full value of land in most countries of the world. 

 
 
30 
Only APs who will not have enough land left to rebuild their houses/shops on the same plots 
after land acquisition, will be relocated. 
 
60. 
The households that will not have enough space in the original plot to reconstruct their 
buildings and will be relocated  will be provided with replacement plots of 600 m
2
 ()for residential 
houses) and of variable area fitting actual needs (for shops). This is the best compensation option, 
as in project areas there is hardly any free residential/commercial land on sale. The Hukumats will 
allocate the replacement plots to the APs in their original settlement; commercial plots will be along 
the road.  Expenses for the relocation of utilities, land clearing/filling, sanitation and land registration 
will be paid by the Project. The AH provided with replacement plots will be allowed to retain use-right 
on their non-affected portion of their old plot for small-scale roadside livelihood activities. 
 
 
3.3    Detailed Resettlement Scheme for Residential and Commercial Land 
3.3.1    Cash compensation without relocation 
61.  Seventy three (73) residential and 5 commercial land plots hosting 7 businesses, 
affected by land acquisition will be compensated based on the cash-for-land principle because 
the affected individual land areas are too small to be compensated on a land-for-land basis and 
because this will mitigate resettlement. Details on these plots are provided below in Table 3.1.  
 
Table 3.1 
Affected residential/commercial land (cash for land compensation) 
 
No of HHs 
Land 
category 
Total affected 
area (m2) 
Cost TJS/ 
m2 
Total 
compensation TJS 
73 
Residential 6,031.05
 11
66,341.55
 5 
Commercial 
185.25
11
2,037.75
Total        78 
  
6,216.30
68,379.30
 
 
3.3.2    Compensation via Land for Land arrangements and Resettlement  
62. 
 Only 3 households will be relocated and receive a replacement plot..These are 2 
households with a residential house and 1 household with a  business/shop (see table 3.2). In 
two cases, the affected persons will receive significantly larger new plots, while one household 
will receive a replacement plot of the same size as the affected plot. Overall, for the 813 m2 of 
the affected land, the Project will compensate the affected persons with 1,800 m2 land.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
Table 3.2  
Land for Land Compensation (AH number and plots comparison) 
 
No of HHs 
Land 
category 
Road 
segment 
Size current 
plot (m2) 
Affected 
area (m2)
Size replacement plot 
(m2) 
Case 1 
Residential 
2
147
40
600
Case 2 
Residential 
3
600
600
600
Case 3 
Commercial 
1
173
173
600
Total 
  
  
920
813
1,800
  
 
63. 
The replacement plots to all three households are provided in the newly built village in 
Khirmanak area of Khonakhoh Jamoat in Gissar district. The plan of the replacement plots is 
given in Figure 3. The relevant original and translated letters from the local authorities are 
provided in Appendix 13.  
 
Figure 3
 
Plan of the Replacement Plots in Gissar District 
 
LEGEND (English translation of the legend to the general layout of the newly built village) 
 
A – Parking area 
Б – Playing (sport) ground  

 
 
32 
В - School 
Г – Medical point 
Д – Public (communal) Center 
Е – Allocated land area for the resettled businesses 
К - Kindergarten 
И – Garbage disposal point 
Л – Tea place (canteen) 
М – Electricity supply transformer 
Н – Garbage disposal point 
 
Location of replacement plots each 600 sq. meter provided for the affected 
 
households loosing residential plots. 
 
64. 
The village is well planned and the plots have easy access to basic services.  In addition, 
the village has a parking area, sports ground, school, medical post, kindergarten, community 
center, canteen and garbage disposal place. Each replacement plot will be provided with all 
necessary services as electricity, water-pump and sanitation facilities. All AP received an offer 
for the replacement plot and signed an acceptance of the offer (refer to Appendix 14).  
  
65. 
Plots Preparation Costs. Table 3.3 summarizes the preparation cost for the 3 plots.:  
 
Table 3.3 
Plot preparation cost 
 
Service 
Cost/plot (TJS) 
Total for all three plots 
Electricity 900
2,700 
Water-pump 1,350
4,050 
Septic tank 
1,350
4,050 
Total                           
3,600
10,800 
 
66. 
Plots Preparation Schedule. All three plots are already prepared and the services will 
be connected/prepared within 4 weeks from the approval of LARP I by the Government and 
ADB. 
‐‐‐ 

 
 
 
 
4. 
SOCIO ECONOMIC PROFILE OF THE AH 
4.1   General 
67.  Socioeconomic survey was conducted during the preparation of the Draft LARP.  The 
data collected by the survey and its findings were reported for the entire Project area. In order to 
enable the contractor to commence the works in 2011, during the implementation of the 
Contract for Preparatory Procurement and Safeguard Services, it was decided that the 
Employer acquires and hands over the land for the Site to the Contractor in two stages. The 
particulars of the Site for each stage are stated in the Site Handing Over Schedule that will 
become part of the contract with the Contractor. For this reason, LARP was divided into two 
separate phases, which correspond to the stages of the handing over of the Site. However, the 
findings of the socioeconomic survey cannot be separated into the two phases of the LARP. 
Therefore, the following socioeconomic analysis refers to the entire affected population living 
along the Project road and it is common to both phases of the LARP. 
 
68.  The socio economic analysis of the affected households is based on a sample survey 
undertaken between January and April 2009. In addition to the demographic and social data 
collected during the census survey, socio-economic information was collected from APs through 
a structured socio-economic questionnaire. At the time of the survey, which preceded 
preliminary design, 430 households were identified as potentially affected. After the completion 
of the feasibility study, the impact corridor was narrowed and the number of APs was reduced to 
377. The original survey sample, however, was retained as it broadens the survey database.  
 
69.  However, the final measurements done for the road segments during the preparation of 
LARP I and preparation of the Draft LARP II, (November 2010-January 2011), reveals that in 
total, 419 households will be affected along the Project area. The first phase of LARP includes 
218 affected households. The second phase of LARP includes 144 households along the road 
segments where the exact measurements are finished, and 57 households on the road 
segments for which the extent of the resettlement will be determined after the detailed road 
design is completed.  
 
 
4.2    Socio Economic Details 
70. 
The following section deals with various socio economic indicators of the households and 
the findings of the socio-economic survey. 
 
 
4.2.1   Sources of income 
71. 
About 26% of the surveyed families stated that agriculture is their main economic activity.  
Business and trade are the main economic activities for 12% of the households and another 
13% of the surveyed depend on white-collar jobs, such as work in the Government sector. 
Approximately one third of the surveyed households (32.3%) reported other activities as their 
major economic activity. The details are given in the following table:. 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
34 
Table 4.1 
Major economic activities of affected households 
 
Major Economic Activities 
Total No. of Households 
Percent 
Agriculture 
112
26
Agricultural labor 
3
0.7
Small enterprise 
25
5.8
Government  
53
12.3
Business and trading 
51
11.9
Transport/taxi 
23
5.4
Daily Wage 
24
5.6
Others 
139
32.3
Total 
430
100
 
 
4.2.2    Landholding status 
72.  The overwhelming majority of the surveyed households (95%) in the Project area 
possess land, while the remaining 5% are landless. The total area of landholdings of the 406 
surveyed households is 539.03 hectares (the average landholding is 1.32 hectares). About 94% 
of the land is cultivable. Average cultivable land holding is 2.76 hectares and the average of 
uncultivable land holding is 0.64 hectares.  
 
Table 4.2 
Types of landholding 
 
Type of land 
Total holding (Hectare) 
Average holding (Hectare) 
Cultivable (irrigated) 
463.83
1.29
Cultivable (non-irrigated) 
43.71
1.47
Non cultivable (Irrigated) 
22.04
0.08
Non cultivable (non Irrigated) 
9.52
0.56
Total irrigated land 
485.8
1.19
Total non irrigated land 
53.23
1.33
 
 
4.2.3    Major cropping pattern 
73.  Vegetables and wheat are the major crops in the Project area. About 69% of the 
households reported vegetables cultivation, and 33% cultivate wheat. Other crops such as rice 
are cultivated by 11% of the households, maize by 10% and cotton is reported by 8% of the 
households. Cotton is mostly cultivated in the area by a small number of larger concerns.  
 
Table 4.3 
Major cropping pattern 
Crop 
No of households 
Percentage 
Average yield (kg) 
Wheat   
142
33.00
1,213.00 
Rice 
48
11.20
934.30 
Maize 
43
10.00
2,057.80 
Vegetables 
296
68.80
735.80 
Cotton 
33
7.60
4,899.60 
Others  
75
17.40
221.80 

 
 
 
4.2.4   Household income 
74.  Agriculture is the highest contributor to the annual income (TJS 27,798), followed by 
business contribution with average of TJS 13,217.80 per year. The overall average annual 
income of the households along the Project area is TJS 10, 871.53.  
 
Table 4.4 
Household income 
 
Sources of income 
Average income (TJS) 
Agriculture 27,798.00
Service 6,964.10
Business 13,217.80
Labour 8,188.90
Professional 6,555.90
Pension 1,661.80
Any other 
11,714.30
Total average 
10,871.50
 
 
4.2.5    Household expenditure 
75.  The total average annual household expenditure is TJS18, 562.5. People spend the 
highest amount of money on food (43.43%) followed by clothing, transportation, agricultural 
produce, and health.  
 
Table 4.5 
Household expenditure 
 
Expenditure 
Average annual 
amount spent (TJS) 
Percentage 
Food 8,062.60
43.43 
Transportation 1,733.75
9.34 
Clothing 2,082.98
11.22 
Health 1,144.26
6.16 
Education 592.87
3.19 
Communication 551.39
2.97 
Social functions 
778.29
4.19 
Agriculture (seeds, hiring 
farm implements etc.) 
1,683.94
9.07 
Fuel for household 
978.02
5.27 
Electric Bill 
362.35
1.95 
Others  
592.06
3.19 
Total Average 
18,562.51
100 
 
 
4.2.6    Poverty 
76.  The average size of the surveyed households is 8 persons. Based on the poverty 
thresholds published by the World Bank for 2009 ($41/month), a household of this size would 
need the minimum annual income of TJS 20,300 to stay beyond the poverty line. Based on the 

 
 
36 
reported income data provided by individual households during the survey in October–
December 2009, 52% of the households were identified as poor. This is comparable with the 
poverty headcount data for the region available from the State Statistical Committee.  
 
77.  The assessment is based on 2000 census data and the living standards survey 
conducted by the World Bank in 2003, which gives the following poverty headcount data for the 
Project districts: Rudaki –40 to 50%, Gissar – 20 to 30%, Shakhrinav –30 to 40% and 
Tursunzade –30 to 40%. It is likely that during the surveys, many respondents reported 
approximate income data, which do not reflect the actual household income over the year.  
 
 
4.2.7    Household assets 
78. 
Most of the surveyed household reported livestock as their assets. Around 63% of the 
households possess sheep and goats, 29% has donkeys, 10% poultry and only 3.5% have 
cows and buffalos. Possession of durable goods differs from household to household depending 
on the nature of the durable goods. At a minimum, most households possess a television set 
and an LPG connection. Refrigerators and radios are owned by nearly half of the households. A 
very small number of households have assets such as computer (8%) or refrigerator (11%). 
About 50% of the households possess a car. 
  
Table 4.6 
Household assets 
 
Item 
No. of 
Households
Percentage 
Radio  
206
47.9 
Bicycle 
121
28.1 
Television 
417
97 
L.P.G connection/ gas cylinder  
368
85.6 
Computer 
34
7.9 
Refrigerator 
201
46.8 
Washing Machine 
86
20.1 
Motor cycle/Scooter 
9
2.1 
Car 
216
50.2 
Air Conditioner 
46
10.7 
Sheep and Goats 
271
63 
Poultry 
44
10.2 
Donkey 
124
28.9 
Large Animals (Cows/Buffalo) 
15
3.5 
Total 
430
100 
 
 
4.2.8    Indebtedness 
79. 
Indebtedness among the households in the Project affected area is a common 
occurrence. About one third (32.6%) of the households stated to have taken loans in the 
previous year. The loans have been obtained from different sources for various households’ 
needs. Few households receive benefits from government assistance schemes. Only 12 
households out of 430 included in the survey reported that they participate in or receive benefits 
from such schemes.  

 
 
 
4.2.9   Access to health centers 
80. 
Some 97% of the households stated that they have easy access to health centers. Over 
a third of them have a health centre within 1 km. Only 5.8 % of the respondents must travel 
more than 10 km to reach a health centre. The average home-health center distance  is 3.7 km.  
 
Table 4.7 
Distance of the health centre 
 
Distance 
Number of Households 
Percentage 
Within 1 km 
142
34.1 
1.1 to 2 km 
87
20.9 
2.1 to 3 km 
63
15.2 
3.1 to 5 km 
44
10.6 
5.1 to 10 km 
56
13.4 
more than 10 km 
24
5.8 
Total 416
100 
Average distance 
3.7 km 
 
81. 
About 42% of the surveyed reported that a household member suffered from a major 
illness in the year preceding the survey, whereas 58% did not face any major illnesses.  
 
 
4.2.10  Migration pattern 
82.  Temporary migration for work is equally prevalent in the Project influence zone. About 
43% of the surveyed households reported that the household members seek work away from 
home. Most workers who work away from home do so outside the country. About 97.3% of the 
migrant workers migrate out of Tajikistan, while only a small percentage of respondents (2.7%) 
migrate within Tajikistan, but outside their district.  
 
83. 
The majority of the respondents migrate as non-agricultural laborers (48.9%) followed by 
trade and business workers (6.5%).  Agricultural migrant laborers comprise the smallest 
percentage of migrant workers (1.7%). Earners from about 45.6% of the households migrate 
every alternate year in search of work and 31.52% migrate once a year. It was also found that 
earners from about 18.5% of households migrate as and when required to seek job 
opportunities, and members of a few (3.3%) households migrate once in every three years.  
 
84.  Migration between June and August is very high in the Project area. Out of 
184 households, 136 households (73.9%) reported migration during this period. Migration rates 
between April and May and in the winter, between December and February do not differ 
significantly (11.9% and 14.1% respectively).  
 
Table 4.8 
Types of jobs 
 
Jobs 
No of Households 
Percentage 
Agricultural laborers 
3
1.7 
Non agricultural laborers 
90
48.9 
Trade & business 
12
6.5 
Others 79
42.9 
Total 184
100 

 
 
38 
85.  The average household income is TJS1,139.46 per month as reported by the 142 
households, where family members migrate for work. The rest of the households were unable to 
provide any information on the actual income received from members who work away from 
home. 
 
 
4.2.11  Education and literacy 
86.  The reported literacy is 100%. Among respondents, 66% of females and nearly 50% of 
males attended secondary schools. Approximately 23% of males and 6% of females completed 
higher education at college/university level. 
 
 
Table 4.9 
Literacy status 
 
Male 
Female 
Total 
Education  
No 

No 

No 

Pre-school 394
19.4
349
18.6
743 
19 
Primary 167
8.2
171
9.1
338 
8.6 
Secondary 1,007
49.5
1,240
66.1
2,247 
57.5 
College/ university 
465
22.9
112
6
577 
14.8 
Illiterate 1
0.05
3
0.2

0.1 
Total 2,034
100
1,875
100
3,909 
100 
 
 
4.2.12  Drinking water 
87.  Local streams are the main sources of drinking water for most of the surveyed 
households. Out of 430 surveyed households, 166 or 39% of the respondents draw drinking 
water from streams. However, 15% of the households have access to piped water supply and 
6% rely on wells or hand pumps as the source of drinking water. Over a third of the respondents 
reported using other sources of drinking water. 
 
 
4.2.13  Sanitation facilities 
88. 
About 98.6% of the households surveyed possess a latrine, while only 1.4% reported that 
they have a flush toilet.  
 
 
 
4.2.14  Domestic fuel 
89. 
Most of the he households use wood as the major source of fuel for cooking (98%). The 
remaining households use electricity or gas. Most of the households (98.4%) have electricity 
and an LPG gas connection. However, wood and crop residues are most commonly used as 
fuel for cooking because of the high price (and low availability) of gas and the high cost of 
electricity. On average, households have 5.5 rooms but only 2.3 rooms are heated.   
 
 

 
 
 
 
4.3 
Women in the Local Context 
90. 
A great majority of affected households are headed by a man (84.4%). There are only 59 
woman -headed households, which makes 15.6% of the affected households. Women are 
primarily involved in household level natural resource based activities such as horticulture, 
sericulture, and animal husbandry (76%). Around 72% reported household work as the main 
activity. About 8% of the women in the surveyed households participate in trade/business work 
and only 6% work as agricultural laborers. On further questioning, it was found that 69 (16%) of 
the respondent households receive income in part from women.  
 
Table 4.10 
Women’s activities 
 
Activities 
No of 
Households
Percentage 
Allied activities 
328
76.3 
Collection and sale of forest products 
12
2.8 
Trade & business 
33
7.6 
Agricultural labour 
27
6.3 
Non agricultural labour 
6
1.4 
HH industries (tailoring, cooking for 
sales etc) 
12
2.8 
Service 14
3.2 
Household work 
309
71.8 
Others  
25
5.8 
Total 430
100.0 
 
91.  Women participate equally in household decision-making (99.5%). The survey revealed 
that women play an active role in the family. The survey data on women participation in 
decision-making is given in the following table.
 
 
Table 4.11 


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