The following is a partial listing of Muslim scholars and organizations who have issued fatwas against extremism and terrorism


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Noor, Farish MALAYSIA But Islam, it must be remembered, also happens to be a faith that does not possess a clerical class or a supreme leader like the Pope. On the positive side this lends the creed an egalitarian outlook which puts all Muslims on par with each other. But on the negative side the absence of a centralised hierarchy also means that the Muslim world is full of self-proclaimed ‘leaders of the faith’ like the Taliban and their unwanted guest, Osama bin Laden.  It is this absence of a clerical order and the plasticity of religious discourse that allows concepts like ‘Jihad’ to be hijacked by such self-appointed defenders of orthodoxy. Coupled with this is the predicament of a Muslim world that feels itself increasingly threatened and marginalised by the forces of globalisation, leading to the defensive posture being adopted by many Muslim leaders themselves.

  • Noor, Farish MALAYSIA But Islam, it must be remembered, also happens to be a faith that does not possess a clerical class or a supreme leader like the Pope. On the positive side this lends the creed an egalitarian outlook which puts all Muslims on par with each other. But on the negative side the absence of a centralised hierarchy also means that the Muslim world is full of self-proclaimed ‘leaders of the faith’ like the Taliban and their unwanted guest, Osama bin Laden.  It is this absence of a clerical order and the plasticity of religious discourse that allows concepts like ‘Jihad’ to be hijacked by such self-appointed defenders of orthodoxy. Coupled with this is the predicament of a Muslim world that feels itself increasingly threatened and marginalised by the forces of globalisation, leading to the defensive posture being adopted by many Muslim leaders themselves.



OIC - Organization of the Islamic Conference, Summit Conference. “We are determined to fight terrorism in all its forms. ... Islam is the religion of moderation. It rejects extremism and isolation. There is a need to confront deviant ideology where it appears, including in school curricula. Islam is the religion of diversity and tolerance.” Daily Star (Beirut, Lebanon), December 9, 2001

  • OIC - Organization of the Islamic Conference, Summit Conference. “We are determined to fight terrorism in all its forms. ... Islam is the religion of moderation. It rejects extremism and isolation. There is a need to confront deviant ideology where it appears, including in school curricula. Islam is the religion of diversity and tolerance.” Daily Star (Beirut, Lebanon), December 9, 2001



Philippine Muslim Leaders Condemn Terrorism, PHILLIPINES Islamic religious authorities have declared terrorism “haram” (unlawful) in Monday’s simultaneous open congregational prayers to mark Eid’l Fitr in town centers of Muslim-dominated provinces and cities. Ustadz Abdulrauf Guialani, a member of the Assembly of Philippine Da’rul Ifta (APDI) or Houses of Opinion, declared senseless violence haram three times as he delivered the khutba.  Ustadz Esmael Ebrahim, a senior member of the APDI, said a similar teaching was given in Eid’l Fitr open field prayers elsewhere in the country, particularly in the areas of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). September 23, 2006

  • Philippine Muslim Leaders Condemn Terrorism, PHILLIPINES Islamic religious authorities have declared terrorism “haram” (unlawful) in Monday’s simultaneous open congregational prayers to mark Eid’l Fitr in town centers of Muslim-dominated provinces and cities. Ustadz Abdulrauf Guialani, a member of the Assembly of Philippine Da’rul Ifta (APDI) or Houses of Opinion, declared senseless violence haram three times as he delivered the khutba.  Ustadz Esmael Ebrahim, a senior member of the APDI, said a similar teaching was given in Eid’l Fitr open field prayers elsewhere in the country, particularly in the areas of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). September 23, 2006



Qadri, Tahirul head of the Awami Tehrik Party, PAKISTAN Bombing embassies or destroying non-military installations like the World Trade Center is no jihad. ... “[T]hose who launched the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks not only killed thousands of innocent people in the United States but also put the lives of millions of Muslims across the world at risk. ... Bin Laden is not a prophet that we should put thousands of lives at risk for.” United Press International, October 18, 2001

  • Qadri, Tahirul head of the Awami Tehrik Party, PAKISTAN Bombing embassies or destroying non-military installations like the World Trade Center is no jihad. ... “[T]hose who launched the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks not only killed thousands of innocent people in the United States but also put the lives of millions of Muslims across the world at risk. ... Bin Laden is not a prophet that we should put thousands of lives at risk for.” United Press International, October 18, 2001



Ramadan, Tariq The situation is far too serious for one to be satisfied by simple explanations based on current frustrations. In the name of their faith and their conscience, Muslims must take a clear position so that a pernicious atmosphere does not take hold in the Western countries. Nothing in Islam can legitimize xenophobia or the rejection of a human being due to his/her religious creed or ethnicity. One must say unequivocally, with force, that anti-Semitism is unacceptable and indefensible. The message of Islam requires respect of Jewish faith and spirituality as noble expressions of “The People of the Book”.

  • Ramadan, Tariq The situation is far too serious for one to be satisfied by simple explanations based on current frustrations. In the name of their faith and their conscience, Muslims must take a clear position so that a pernicious atmosphere does not take hold in the Western countries. Nothing in Islam can legitimize xenophobia or the rejection of a human being due to his/her religious creed or ethnicity. One must say unequivocally, with force, that anti-Semitism is unacceptable and indefensible. The message of Islam requires respect of Jewish faith and spirituality as noble expressions of “The People of the Book”.



Sachedina, Abdulaziz, Ph.D. U.S. I continued to search for the religious sources of terrorism, if there were any, available to the extremists in the scriptures or in the tradition ascribed to the Prophet. As I searched, I became aware that the term ‘jihad’, which is commonly used by these terrorists to legitimize their criminality, does not appear in the meaning of “holy war against the infidels” at all.  In fact, terrorism in any form does not qualify as anything more than a cowardly act and an expression of rejection of God’s blessing of life.  To be sure, the term `jihad’ in the lexicon of these murderers does not appear in more than a contrived meaning to cover up the horror of their satanic behavior.

  • Sachedina, Abdulaziz, Ph.D. U.S. I continued to search for the religious sources of terrorism, if there were any, available to the extremists in the scriptures or in the tradition ascribed to the Prophet. As I searched, I became aware that the term ‘jihad’, which is commonly used by these terrorists to legitimize their criminality, does not appear in the meaning of “holy war against the infidels” at all.  In fact, terrorism in any form does not qualify as anything more than a cowardly act and an expression of rejection of God’s blessing of life.  To be sure, the term `jihad’ in the lexicon of these murderers does not appear in more than a contrived meaning to cover up the horror of their satanic behavior.



Sardar, Ziauddin MALAYSIA Creating the Kingdom of God on earth, as it is in heaven, is the basic message of Islam. This is the true meaning of jihad. Now there’s a word. The very mention of the term sends shivers down ‘civilized’ spines and leads many, glibly, towards ‘holy war’. Surely, these paradise-seeking martyrs have declared jihad on America? Acts of terror are not jihad. They violate the explicit word of God, Prophet Muhammad and the reasoned consensus of all believers. The greatest jihad is the war on injustice in one’s own soul, the injustice that can conceive of terror tactics and lose all restraints and respect for the sanctity of a human life. Jihad is the reasoned struggle of each individual to work within the bounds of moral action, to extend the protection of justice equitably to every human being, irrespective of color, creed or place of origin. Jihad is the obligation to make peace a lived reality for all human beings.  ... Islam cannot explain the actions of the suicide hijackers, just as Christianity cannot explain the gas chambers, Catholicism the bombing at Omagh. They are acts beyond belief, religious belief, by people who long ago abandoned the path of Islam.

  • Sardar, Ziauddin MALAYSIA Creating the Kingdom of God on earth, as it is in heaven, is the basic message of Islam. This is the true meaning of jihad. Now there’s a word. The very mention of the term sends shivers down ‘civilized’ spines and leads many, glibly, towards ‘holy war’. Surely, these paradise-seeking martyrs have declared jihad on America? Acts of terror are not jihad. They violate the explicit word of God, Prophet Muhammad and the reasoned consensus of all believers. The greatest jihad is the war on injustice in one’s own soul, the injustice that can conceive of terror tactics and lose all restraints and respect for the sanctity of a human life. Jihad is the reasoned struggle of each individual to work within the bounds of moral action, to extend the protection of justice equitably to every human being, irrespective of color, creed or place of origin. Jihad is the obligation to make peace a lived reality for all human beings.  ... Islam cannot explain the actions of the suicide hijackers, just as Christianity cannot explain the gas chambers, Catholicism the bombing at Omagh. They are acts beyond belief, religious belief, by people who long ago abandoned the path of Islam.



Schleifer, S. Abdallah EGYPT That is why, in my opinion, the Amman Initiative called last spring [2005] by Jordan’s King Abdallah II was so important. The conference made manifest by the Amman Initiative was organized on the king’s behalf by the Aal al Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, an institute that embraces both the ulema in the most classical sense and contemporary Muslim intellectuals of various perspectives. Together, the ulema and the intellectuals signed off on a document that affirmed the mutual recognition of all classical schools of Islamic law, be they Sunni or Shi`ah, and condemned all attempts to takfir Muslims – a doctrine that allows one Muslim to classify another Muslim as an apostate worthy of being slaughtered. This is the doctrine that has been used in an attempt to justify terrorism, in Islamic terms, within Egypt since the mid-1970s and now is the basis for the almost daily mass murder of Shi`ahs in Iraq.  This declaration, which embraced fatwas by the sheikh al-Azhar, the mufti of Egypt, and the rector of al-Azhar University; Grand Ayatullah Sayyid Ali Sistani and many other outstanding Shi`ah ulema in Iraq and Iran; muftis in Jordan, Oman, and other Sunni countries; as well as by an officer of the Fiqh Council of Saudi Arabia and Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi, struck at the very roots of theologically justified terrorism. By mutually recognizing all Sunni and Shi`ah schools of law and by insisting that only those scholars who have mastered the traditional legal disciplines within their respective schools have the authority to issue fatwas, the mainstream ulema and Muslim intellectuals who participated in Amman also explicitly declared that Islam is not a do-it-yourself store-front religion.

  • Schleifer, S. Abdallah EGYPT That is why, in my opinion, the Amman Initiative called last spring [2005] by Jordan’s King Abdallah II was so important. The conference made manifest by the Amman Initiative was organized on the king’s behalf by the Aal al Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, an institute that embraces both the ulema in the most classical sense and contemporary Muslim intellectuals of various perspectives. Together, the ulema and the intellectuals signed off on a document that affirmed the mutual recognition of all classical schools of Islamic law, be they Sunni or Shi`ah, and condemned all attempts to takfir Muslims – a doctrine that allows one Muslim to classify another Muslim as an apostate worthy of being slaughtered. This is the doctrine that has been used in an attempt to justify terrorism, in Islamic terms, within Egypt since the mid-1970s and now is the basis for the almost daily mass murder of Shi`ahs in Iraq.  This declaration, which embraced fatwas by the sheikh al-Azhar, the mufti of Egypt, and the rector of al-Azhar University; Grand Ayatullah Sayyid Ali Sistani and many other outstanding Shi`ah ulema in Iraq and Iran; muftis in Jordan, Oman, and other Sunni countries; as well as by an officer of the Fiqh Council of Saudi Arabia and Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi, struck at the very roots of theologically justified terrorism. By mutually recognizing all Sunni and Shi`ah schools of law and by insisting that only those scholars who have mastered the traditional legal disciplines within their respective schools have the authority to issue fatwas, the mainstream ulema and Muslim intellectuals who participated in Amman also explicitly declared that Islam is not a do-it-yourself store-front religion.



Shakir, Imam Zaid U.S. This is a war being guided on both sides by self-righteous murderers whose motives and proclamations mirror each other. Each side sees God as being exclusively with them. That being the case, the restraint and judiciousness urged by Christian and Islamic theology to guide the execution of war is cast aside with wanton impunity. Each side manipulates a vulnerable public to create a climate that allows for the perpetuation and the inevitable escalation of the ongoing slaughter. Each side reserves the right to use the spectacle of indiscriminate violence to “Shock and Awe” the opposition, yet will deny that its tactics can be described as terrorism. Each side sees their civilian population as hapless, innocent victims, while the suffering innocent civilians on the other side are acceptable collateral damage.

  • Shakir, Imam Zaid U.S. This is a war being guided on both sides by self-righteous murderers whose motives and proclamations mirror each other. Each side sees God as being exclusively with them. That being the case, the restraint and judiciousness urged by Christian and Islamic theology to guide the execution of war is cast aside with wanton impunity. Each side manipulates a vulnerable public to create a climate that allows for the perpetuation and the inevitable escalation of the ongoing slaughter. Each side reserves the right to use the spectacle of indiscriminate violence to “Shock and Awe” the opposition, yet will deny that its tactics can be described as terrorism. Each side sees their civilian population as hapless, innocent victims, while the suffering innocent civilians on the other side are acceptable collateral damage.



Shakir, Imam Zaid U.S. Islam has instituted fighting to defend life, honor, property, to restore usurped rights, and to protect the integrity of the religion and the community of the faithful. However, that fighting is governed by well-established laws and principles that articulate rules, regulations, and limitations that outline for Muslims when, where, how, and against whom it is permissible to fight. Those laws and principles have never sanctioned anarchist terrorism, wanton murder, tumult, and mayhem.

  • Shakir, Imam Zaid U.S. Islam has instituted fighting to defend life, honor, property, to restore usurped rights, and to protect the integrity of the religion and the community of the faithful. However, that fighting is governed by well-established laws and principles that articulate rules, regulations, and limitations that outline for Muslims when, where, how, and against whom it is permissible to fight. Those laws and principles have never sanctioned anarchist terrorism, wanton murder, tumult, and mayhem.



Sullivan, Dr. Antony T.  BRITAIN My fundamental argument is that terrorism and Jihad are not identical twins but historic enemies.  I will maintain that a new vocabulary is essential to demonstrate the radical antipathy that has separated these concepts until very recent decades.  Terrorism is not only un-Islamic but anti-Islamic, and those who commit terrorism should be designated as criminals rather than as holy warriors or resistance fighters.  Moreover, this paper will suggest that a new focus by Muslims on the Holy Quran, at the expense of medieval fiqh, is now very much in order (I frequently suggest to Muslim fundamentalists that their only problem is that they are not fundamentalist enough).  In addition, an argument will be made that the meaning of Jihad must be reassessed through analysis of its linguistic roots, and re-conceptualized to incorporate the phenomenon of culturally traditionalist and inter-religious efforts designed to address some of the most difficult problems of modernity.  Indeed, ecumenical Jihad is today not an oxymoron, but a necessity.  If the perceived linkage between terrorism and Jihad can be ruptured, and Jihad re-conceptualized as constituting a means by which all of the children of Abraham may strive to create a better world, the foundations for a brighter future will surely have been laid.  This paper will conclude with a discussion of one ecumenical effort already underway which seeks to join Muslims and Christians who are culturally traditionalist and truly religious in a common effort to oppose the radical secularism so characteristic of contemporary Western modernity

  • Sullivan, Dr. Antony T.  BRITAIN My fundamental argument is that terrorism and Jihad are not identical twins but historic enemies.  I will maintain that a new vocabulary is essential to demonstrate the radical antipathy that has separated these concepts until very recent decades.  Terrorism is not only un-Islamic but anti-Islamic, and those who commit terrorism should be designated as criminals rather than as holy warriors or resistance fighters.  Moreover, this paper will suggest that a new focus by Muslims on the Holy Quran, at the expense of medieval fiqh, is now very much in order (I frequently suggest to Muslim fundamentalists that their only problem is that they are not fundamentalist enough).  In addition, an argument will be made that the meaning of Jihad must be reassessed through analysis of its linguistic roots, and re-conceptualized to incorporate the phenomenon of culturally traditionalist and inter-religious efforts designed to address some of the most difficult problems of modernity.  Indeed, ecumenical Jihad is today not an oxymoron, but a necessity.  If the perceived linkage between terrorism and Jihad can be ruptured, and Jihad re-conceptualized as constituting a means by which all of the children of Abraham may strive to create a better world, the foundations for a brighter future will surely have been laid.  This paper will conclude with a discussion of one ecumenical effort already underway which seeks to join Muslims and Christians who are culturally traditionalist and truly religious in a common effort to oppose the radical secularism so characteristic of contemporary Western modernity



Yahya, Harun (Adnan Oktar), author, TURKEY Islam does not encourage any kind of terrorism; in fact, it denounces it. Those who use terrorism in the name of Islam, in fact, have no other faculty except ignorance and hatred.”

  • Yahya, Harun (Adnan Oktar), author, TURKEY Islam does not encourage any kind of terrorism; in fact, it denounces it. Those who use terrorism in the name of Islam, in fact, have no other faculty except ignorance and hatred.”



Shaik Hamza Yusuf

  • Shaik Hamza Yusuf

  • If you hate the West, emigrate to a Muslim country.”




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