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Asadulloev, Sa'dullo

Tajik literary critic and scholar Sa'dullo Asadulloev was born into a

religious family in the village of Qistakuz of Khujand on September 12,

1932. He joined the CPSU in 1968.

Asadulloev graduated from Tajikistan State University in 1956.

Thereafter, he taught literature at the same institute until 1965 when he

was appointed the Head of the Department of Tajik Literature at the

Khujand State University. He received his doctorate degree in philology

in 1986. He became a full professor at Khujand State University in

1987.


Asadulloev's research deals with the early history of Perso-Tajik

literature. Some of his essays have been published in journals in Iran

and Afghanistan. His contributions include "Abjad va Ta'rikhho" ("The

Role of the Abjad' in [Establishing] Dates," 1972), "Ba'zi Vozhahoi

Musiqi va Surud va Navoho dar Ash'ori Hofiz" ("Some Music-Related

Words, Songs, and Sounds in the Poetry of Hafiz," 1975), "Amir

Khesravi Dihlavi" ("Amir Khorow Dihlavi," 1975), and "Laili i

Madzhnun v farsiyazichnoi literature" ("Layli and Majnun in the Lit-

eratures of the Farsi Speaking Peoples," Dushanbe, 1981).


Prominent Tajik Figures of the Twentieth Century

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

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Ashrafi, Mukaddima

Tajik art historian Mukaddima Mukhtorovna Ashrafi was born on

July 5, 1936, in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Her father, Mukhtor Ashrafi, was

a well-known composer and conductor in Uzbekistan and she is the

wife of Tajik intellectual Kamol Aini.

Ashrafi graduated from Moscow State University with an MA in Art

History in 1959 and a Ph.D. in Art History in 1972. From 1959 to 1961,

she served as a research fellow in the Department of Literature of the

Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet

Union. Thereafter, until 1972 she served as a research fellow in the

Department of Manuscripts of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the

Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan. From 1972 to the present, she has

been serving as a senior research fellow and chief researcher at the

Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan. She

completed her post-doctorate work in Art History at the Institute of Art

History in Moscow in 1986, and she became a professor in 1997.

Currently, she works in the Department of Humanities of the Tech-

nological University of Tajikistan.

Ashrafi has received a number of Fellowships , including UNESCO

Research Fellowship in France, the UK, and Ireland in 1980, and the

Iran Heritage Foundation Research Fellowship in 1997. She has also

been a Visiting Scholar with the Agha Khan Foundation in 1990 and

1991, as well as at the Institute Francais d'Études sur L'Ásie Centrale

(IFEAC), 2001.

Ashrafi's publications include Miniatures of the 16



th

 Century in MSS

of Works by Jami, 1966), The Bukhara Miniatures School of the 40s-70s

of the 16

th

 Century, 1974), Persian-Tajik Poetry in Miniatures of the

14

th

 to 17

th

 Century, 1974), The Development of Iranian Miniatures in

the 16

th

 Century, 1978), Bihzod and the Development of the Bukhara

Miniature School of the 16

th

 Century, 1987), and "The Art of the Book,"

History of central Asian Civilization (UNESCO), Paris, 2000.

Ashrafi has traveled extensively in Iran, France, Ireland, India,

Germany, Pakistan, Hong Kong, Jordan, and the United States.

Ashrafi, Mukhtor

Tajik composer and conductor Mukhtor Ashrafuvich Ashrafi was

born in Bukhara on May 29, 1912. Known as one of the major figures in


Iraj Bashiri

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

36

opera in the East, Ashrafi's career began when, between 1934 and 1936,



he studied at the Moscow Conservatory.

In 1948, he graduated from the Leningrad Conservatory. Between

1944 and 1953, he served first as a teacher and then as a professor at the

Tashkent Conservatory.

Ashrafi moved to Dushanbe in 1930. Following the direction of

Radio Tajikistan, he prepared a series of twenty Tajiki songs. In 1932,

he accompanied the Tajikistan Ensemble to Leningrad. His most well

known contribution was Siuetai Raqsii Tojiki (The Tajiki Dance Suite).

At the end of his life, Ashrafi created several great works, including

Shamshir va Mahabbat (The Sword and Love, 1974), Dostoni Rustam

(The Story of Rustam, 1974), and the musical score for the Tajiki film



Az Gang to Kreml' (From the Ganges to the Kremlin, 1975), and others.

Ashrafi joined the Union of Writers of the Soviet Union in 1941. He

became a People's Artist of the Soviet Union in 1951. He also is the

recipient of two Orders of Lenin, two Orders of the Red Banner of

Labor, the Badge of Honor, and the Order of the Presidium of the

Supreme Soviet of Tajikistan.

Ashrafi died on December 15, 1975, in Tashkent.

Ashur Safar

See Safarov, Ashur.



Ashurmuhamadov, Yormahmad

Tajik actor and playwright Yormahmad Ashurmuhamadov was born

into a farming family in the city of Khorugh, Badakhshan, on March 1,

1919. He joined the CPSU in 1958.

Ashurmuhamadov graduated from the Khorugh Pedagogical School

in 1940. In the same year, he joined the Rudaki Music and Drama

Theater of Khorugh. From 1947 to 1971, he was the director, the actor,

and the head of the Youth Club of the region. In 1971, he became the

Director of the Badakhshan Museum.

As an actor, Ashurmuhamadov has skillfully created a number of

memorable characters including Tavakkalkhoja in Chanori Guyo

(Speaking Plain Tree), by S. Saidmurodov, 1958; Qozi in Kishloqi



Tilloi (Golden Village), by M. Mirshakar, 1967; Jallod in Dostoni Hofiz

(The Story of Hafiz), by F. Toshmuhammadov, 1968; Bonch Bruevisch

in Hurriat (Freedom), by Gh. Abdullo, 1970; and others.


Prominent Tajik Figures of the Twentieth Century

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

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Ashurmuhamadov has written several plays, includingSubhi Iqbol



(The Morning of Fortune, 1957); Rubob Hikoyat Mikunad (The Lute

Relates, 1967), a concert-spectacle entitled Shu'lai Oftob (The Flame of

the Sun); and a musical composition entitled Lenin Partia, Oktiobr

(Lenin's Party, October, 1980).

Ashurmuhamadov became a People's Artist of Tajikistan in 1967.

He is a recipient of the Order of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of

Tajikistan.

Ashurov, Ghaffor

Tajik philosopher Ghaffor Ashurov was born into a family of

farmers in the Tajikabad region on March 5, 1930. He received his early

education in the new-method school of Gharm. He joined the CPSU in

1953.

Ashurov graduated from the Moscow Sociological Institute in 1953.



From then until 1955, he served as a special editor and following that

became the Chief Specialist on the Board of Directors of the Tajikistan

State Library Named After Firdowsi. Between 1955 and 1958, he was a

post-graduate student majoring in the history of philosophy. In 1959

and 1960, he was a Scientific Worker. Between 1961 and 1964, he was

the Director of the Department of Philosophy. Ashurov defended his

dissertation, entitled Aqoidi Falsafii Nosiri Khesrav (The Philosophical

Thought of Nasir Khosrow), in 1965. From 1965 to 1988, he became the

Director of the Philosophy division of the Academy of Sciences of

Tajikistan. He was a member of the Board of the Directors of the

Academy. He had gained full membership at the Academy in 1976.

Between 1986 and 1990, he was the Academic-Secretary of the

Anthropology Department of the Academy. He repeated the same

position between 1999 and 2000. From 1999 to the present, Ashurov

has been the Chief Scientific Worker of the Institute of Philosophy of

the Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan.

In his research, Ashurov has addressed three major philosophical

issues: 1) the history of social and philosophical thinking of the Tajiks;

2) The Lenin phase of the development of Marxist philosophy; and 3)

Criticism of anti-Communist ideologies. Ashurov's contributions

include "Filosofskaya i obshchestvenno-politicheskaya misl'

tadzhikskogo naroda" ("Philosophical and Social Thought of the

Tajiks"), which appears in Istoria tadzhikskogo naroda (The History of



Iraj Bashiri

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

38

the Tajiks, vol. 2, Moscow, 1964); Filosofskie vzgliadi Nosira Khisrava

(Nasir Khosrow's Philosophical View, Dushanbe, 1965); Aqoidi Falsafii

Nosiri Khesrav (The Philosophical Thought of Nasir Khosrow,

Dushanbe 1965); "Afkori Falsafi--Ijodiyyoti Tojikon" (Philosophical

Thought--The Contribution of the Tajiks), in Ta'rikhi Khalqi Tojik

(History of the Tajiks, Moscow, 1964); "Afkori Ijtimo'i-Falsafii Tojikon

dar Asrhoi XIX-XX" ("Socio-Philosophical Thought of the Tajiks

during the 19

th

 and 20


th

 Centuries"), in Ta'rikhi Falsafa dar SSSR

(History of Philosophy in the Soviet Union, Moscow, 1971).

Ashurov won the Ibn Sina State Prize in 1981. He has also received

the Order of the Red Banner of Labor (1970), the Badge of Honor

(1981), and the Honorary Order of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet

of Tajikistan (1965, 1973).

Ashurov has traveled to Germany and the Czech Republic.



Askar Hakim

See Hakimov, Askar.



Asrori, Vohid

Tajik folklorist Vohid Mirashurovich Asrori, also referred to as

Asrorov, was born in Khujand into a worker's family on October 7,

1917. He joined the CPSU in 1949.

Asrori graduated from the Language and Literature division of

Tashkent Pedagogical Institute in 1938. Between 1941 and 1944, he

contributed to the war efforts. After the war he worked for the Ministry

of State Supervision and later for the Pioniri Tojikiston journal. Shortly

thereafter, he moved to Dushanbe and, in 1949. graduated from the

Dushanbe Pedagogical Institute as well. Following that he was

employed by the teacher-training division of the same Institute as an

instructor. After he completed his studies, in 1952, he became one of

the first professors of the State University of Dushanbe Named After

Zhlanov. Subsequently, he became the Director of the Literature and

Folklore division of the Tajikistan State University.

Asrorov's first poems and early writings appear in 1947. His major

works include Salom Maktab (Hello, School, 1951), dedicated to young

readers; Zamzamai Hayot (Life's Murmur, 1964); and Hardoishon



Naghz (Both Are Good, 1962).

Prominent Tajik Figures of the Twentieth Century

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

39

Asrorov's contributions to folklore include Yusuf Vafo (Yusef Vafo,



1957), Khalq Va Adabiyot (People and Literature, 1967), and Adabiyot

Va Folklor (Literature and Folklore, 1968).

Asrorov joined the Union of Writers of the Soviet Union in 1956,

and the Union of Writers of Tajikistan in 1958.

Asrorov

See Asrori, Vohid.



Asrorov, Shodi

Tajik writer Shodi Asrorov was born in the village of Surkhkast of

Maschoh in 1945.

Asrorov graduated from Tajikistan State University with a degree in

Tajiki language and literature in 1968. He remained at that University

until 1978, when he defended a doctorate dissertation entitled Siyavosh



dar Shohnomai Firdawsi (Siyavosh in Firdowsi's Shahname). Inson az

Nazari Firdowsi (Firdowsi's View of Man) is Asrorov's major

contribution to Firdowsi studies.

Shodi Asrorov died in 1987.

Atoboev, Abdusalom

Tajik intellectual and playwright Abdusalom Atoboev, also referred

to as Atozoda, was born into a farming family in the village of Qal'achai

Mazor in the Isfara province of northern Tajikistan on April 20, 1934.

He joined the CPSU in 1965.

Atoboev graduated from the Dushanbe Pedagogical Institute with a

degree in philology in 1958. Thereafter, he worked at Tojikistoni

Shavravi, Zanoni Tojikiston, Sadoi Sharq, and Mash'al, as well as at the

Ministry of Education.

Atoboev's early stories were published in the 1960s. Recognized as

one of Tajikistan's prominent playwrights, Atoboev wrote plays dealing

with Tajik history and society, as well as with the moral problems of the

contemporary world. In his 1971 play, entitled Surudi Notamom

(Unfinished Anthem), he depicts the life and work of the well-known

Iranian poet Robi'a Balkhi. Similarly, his 1973 play, Foji'ai Inson (The



Calamity of Man), depicts the history of the peoples of the west.

Atoboev's other works include Qiomi Lohuti (The Lahuti Uprising,

1979), Bo Imzoi Lenin (Signed by Lenin, 1981), Parvozi Uqob (The


Iraj Bashiri

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

40

Flight of the Eagle, 1975), Shamshiri Mirosi (The Inherited Sword,

1984), and others.

Atoboev joined the Union of Writers of the Soviet Union in 1974.

He died in Dushanbe on April 28, 1986.

Atoulloeva, Zulfiya

Tajik poet Zulfiya Atoulloeva, also referred to as Zulfiya Atoy, was

born into a scholarly family in the village of Qala'-i Azim of Ghonchi

on June 15, 1954. She joined the CPSU in 1982.

Atoulloeva graduated from the Gorkii Institute of Literature in

Moscow in 1977, and until 1983, was on the staff of Tojikistoni Soveti.

From 1983 to 1985, she worked for Zanoni Tojikiston. In 1985, she

became the Acting Editor of Gozetai Muallimon. Since 1985, she has

worked at various positions in the printed media including holding the

chief editorship of two journals: Firuza and Guftugu.

Atoulloeva's early poems were published in Bairaqi Oktiobr in 1967.

Thereafter, her poems were published in the other journals in the

Republic, as well as in the collection entitled Shukufahoi Umidbakhsh

(Hope-Inspiring Blossoms) in 1973. Atoulloeva's other contributions

include "Jihoz" ("Dowry," 1977), "Didor" ("Visit," 1982), "Zochai

Khushrui Man" ("My Beautiful Doll," 1984), "Dukhtari Daryo" ("The

Daughter of the Sea," 1986), "'Ishqi Yak Zan" ("A Woman's Love,"

1992), and "Sitorai Mushtari" ("Jupiter," 1998).

Atoulloeva is a lyricist. Her poems are about patriotism, mother-

hood, childhood, pure love, and happiness. Although mostly traditional,

her compositions are not devoid of forays into the domain of new

poetry.


Atoulloeva joined the Union of the Writers of the Soviet Union in

1979. She is recognized as a Distinguished Tajik Journalist, and a

Distinguished Contributor to Tajik Education, as well as a winner of the

Tajikistan Youth Prize.

Atoulloeva has traveled to the Netherlands, Germany, Iran, Pakistan,

and the United States.



Atozoda

See Atoboev, Abdusalom.



Prominent Tajik Figures of the Twentieth Century

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

41

Azimova, Aziza

Tajik ballet dancer Aziza Azimova was born in the village of Surkhi

of Uroteppa on December 5, 1915. She joined the CPSU in 1941.

She entered the Bukhara Women's Pedagogical Institute in 1927 and

worked with the havaskoron amateur group. In 1930, she joined the

traveling Theater of Tashkent Workers. In 1932, she moved to

Tajikistan and began work in the Lahuti State Academy of Dramatic

Arts. Subsequently she played several dramatic roles including Shirin in

Muboriza (Struggle), by Usmonov; Ra'no in Ra'no (Ra'no), by

Saidmurodov; Adelma in Malikai Turandot (Queen of Turandot), by K.

Gotstsi; and others.

Between 1938 and 1946, she danced at the Music Theater (present-

day Aini State Academy Theater for Opera-Ballet). She has created the

roles of Nozgul in Du Gul (Two Flowers), by A. Lenskii, 1941; Liza in



Ihtiyotkorii Bihuda (Futile Precaution), by L. Gerold, 1943; and Maria

in Favvorai Boghcha Saroi (The Garden Fountain), by B. Osefov,

1945.

Between 1946 and 1951, when she received her degree in director-



ship and advanced ballet, Azimova attended the State Institute of

Dramatic Arts Named After Lunacharskii. She then performed in the

1950 production of Lolai Surkh (Red Tulip), which was also her dis-

sertation, and Doktor Aibolit (Doctor Aibolt). After 1951, she served as

the chief ballet dancer of the State Philharmonic Society of Tajikistan,

teaching her art to the younger generation of Tajiks. In 1964 and 1965,

Azimova served a stint in Kabul. In 1967, she joined the staff of the

Dushanbe Pedagogical Institute as a Professor of Fine Arts.

Azimova received the title of People's Artist of Tajikistan in 1941.

She received two Orders of Red Banner of Labor, two Orders of the

Badge of Honor, and a number of other medals.

Azizi, Bahriddin

Tajik author and poet Bahriddin Azizi, also referred to as Azmi, was

born to a scholarly family in Uroteppa in 1895. He received his early

education in the traditional schools (maktabi kuhna) of the region. After

1910, he continued his education in the schools of Bukhara. After

graduating from the Tashkent Teacher Training School, he returned to

Uroteppa where he was employed as a teacher. He also served on the

Executive Committee of the city and as a member of the city's judiciary.



Iraj Bashiri

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

42

Bahriddin Azizi's literary career began early, during his high school



years. Writing under the penname of Azmi, he lambasted the atrocities

of the Manghit Amirs of Bukhara. In the 1920s, he wrote satires in both

Uzbeki and Tajiki under various pennames, including "Tarsonchak,"

"Tarsaki," and others. His major articles were published in the satirical

journal Mushfiqi. His major themes include elimination of superstitions,

eradicating traditional mores and customs, as well as opposition to

social ills. Azizi's major works include Zarbdor (Shocker, 1932),

Ghalaba (Victory, 1932), Hasani Yak Dasta (One-Handed Hassan,

1936), Qurboni (Sacrifice, 1937), and Hikoyaho (Stories, 1962).

Azizi died in Uroteppa in 1944.



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