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P

Pallo, Vladimir V., 291, 295, 296, 309

Panchenko, Yevgeniy I., 250, 251, 497

Panferov, Viktor M., 200

Panin, Yevgeniy I., 342

Pantin, K. K., 195

Paris, 607-608

Party Congresses, see Communist Party 

Congresses

Pashkov, Georgiy N., 86, 92, 136, 220, 222

Pasternak, Mikhail S., 487

Paton, Boris Ye., 74-75, 196, 237, 550

Paton Institute of Electric Welding, 74, 237

Patrushev, Vladimir S., 296, 299, 344, 345, 

567

Patsayev, Viktor I., xxiv, 340, 363369, 370, 



375, 380, 400

Paukov, Georgiy M., 534

Pedan, A. P., 188

Peenemünde, 39, 43, 44, 611

Penek, Boris M., 173, 218, 403, 456

Penzin, Boris G., 195, 535

Perm, 358

Persian Gulf, 592

Peshekhonov, Vladimir G., 451

Peter I (the Great), 36, 134, 508, 609

Petrov, Boris N., 318, 365, 492

Petrov, Georgiy I., 377-378

Pilyugin, Nikolay A., 13, 32, 34-35, 81-84, 

90, 91, 105, 107-109, 111, 113, 117, 

118, 120-121, 123-125, 129-130, 136, 

147, 149-151, 172-173, 175-183, 186, 

200, 213, 220, 257-259, 263, 266, 

317-319, 344, 351, 388-389, 418, 422, 

427-428, 433, 450-451, 456, 464-465, 

473, 492-493, 517, 521-523, 525, 529, 

531, 540, 546, 547, 550, 571, 577

Pilyugina, Antonina K., 351

Pimenov, Boris P., 159

Pioner ICBM, 32, 178

Pirogovo, 384-385, 389

Pitsunda, 572

Plastik Factory, 453

Platonov, Arkadiy M., 149

Plesetsk launch site, 35

PO Polet, 27

Pobedonostsev, Yuriy A., 102

Podgornyy, Nikolay V., 134, 366, 390, 454

Podlipki, xix, 159, 160, 162, 180, 206, 228, 

244, 253, 283, 291-292, 295, 302, 304, 

306, 331, 333, 357, 364, 379, 381, 388, 

642


Index

389, 395, 419, 427, 504, 534, 551; see 

also Kaliningrad

Pokrovskiy, Boris A., xxviii

Polaris A-1 submarine-launched ballistic 

missile, 30

Polaris A-2 submarine-launched ballistic 

missile, 30

Politburo, see Central Committee 

Presidium/Politburo

Polukhin, Dmitriy A., 299, 308

Polyachenko, Vladimir A., xxviii

Polyakov, Valeriy V., 599-600

Ponomarev, Aleksandr N., 188, 189, 363

Ponomareva, Valentina L., xxviii

Popov, Viktor A., 253, 323

Popovich, Pavel R., 323, 329, 496

POS (Permanent Orbital Station) concept, 

542, 554

Post, Wiley H., 313

Power, Thomas S., 42

Pratt & Whitney (company), 48



Pravda newspaper, 238, 390, 391

Pravetskiy, Vladimir N., 250, 340-343, 348, 

361, 368, 374, 375, 376

Presidium, see Central Committee 

Presidium/Politburo

Priroda module, 599

Priss, Georgiy M., 149, 317, 429-430, 441, 

443, 446

PRO, see antimissile defense

Progress Factory, 17-18, 74, 80, 94, 104, 

139, 141, 196, 201, 202, 268-269, 315, 

318, 348, 420, 425, 426, 527-529, 535, 

551, 554, 556



Progress M-34 spacecraft, 600

Progress spacecraft, 454, 505, 600, 605, 609

Proton launch vehicle, 21, 22, 72, 77, 153, 

181, 214, 215, 243, 263, 269, 309-310, 

321, 484, 485, 542, 565, 577, 616; see 

also UR-500 and UR-500K

Proton satellites, 21



Proton-1 satellite, 21

Proton-3 satellite, 21

Prudnikov, Ivan S., 195, 269, 350, 533, 

535, 596, 597

PS-84 aircraft, 523

purges (Stalinist purges), see Great Terror

Puttkamer, Jesco von, xxxi, 44-45

PVO, see Air Defense Troops

R

R-1 missile, 25, 65, 71, 227, 302, 388

R-2 missile, 25, 71, 74, 450

R-2R missile, 250

R-5 missile, 25, 70

R-5M missile, 25

R-7 ICBM (Semyorka), x, xix, 8, 10, 17, 18, 

22, 41, 54, 60, 61, 74, 83, 141, 153, 

196, 201, 203, 205, 247, 260, 269, 299, 

317, 322, 347, 414, 422, 473, 538, 543, 

556, 562, 565, 567, 576, 578, 593, 605

R-7A ICBM, 8-9, 17, 18, 27, 80, 434

R-9 ICBM, 9, 18, 118, 140, 201, 269, 459

R-9A ICBM, 67, 69, 71

R-11M missile, 15

R-12 missile, 25, 26, 32

R-12U missile, 25

R-13 missile, 30

R-14 missile, 25, 26, 32

R-14U missile, 25, 26

R-16 ICBM, 21, 25 

R-16U ICBM, 25

R-21 submarine-launched ballistic missile

30

R-27 submarine-launched ballistic missile, 



30

R-27U submarine-launched ballistic missile, 

30

R-29 submarine-launched ballistic missile, 



30

R-36 ICBM, 21, 25-26

R-36M ICBM, 26

R-36P ICBM, 27

R-39 submarine-launched ballistic missile, 

31

R-56 heavy-lift launch vehicle, 27, 72, 75, 



86, 108

Rabinovich, Ye. N., 223

Radionov, B. A., 188

Radovskiy, Vitaliy P., 533, 545, 574



Raduga TV communications satellite, 16, 36

Radutnyy, Viktor S., 344

Ranger spacecraft, 112

Raspletin, Aleksandr A., 84

Rauschenbach, Boris V., 13, 102, 118, 121, 

126, 127, 158-160, 163, 173, 186, 

247-250, 253, 255, 266, 302, 306, 307, 

317, 322, 323, 326-329, 331, 333-334, 

358-359, 371, 380, 385, 410, 455, 458, 

460-462, 465, 469-471, 483, 485, 487, 

493-495

Raykhman, Oskar Yu., 463



Raykov, Ivan I., 142-144, 148, 231, 236, 

384, 422, 432-433, 443, 527, 564-565, 

571

RD-0120 rocket engine, 574-575, 579



643

Rockets and People: Moon Race

RD-170 rocket engine, 574-575, 579, 606

RD-270 rocket engine, 214

Reactive Scientific-Research Institute, see 

RNII

Reagan, Ronald W., 316



Red Square, 396, 602

Redstone Arsenal, 39-40, 43

Redstone rocket, 40, 584-585

Remembrances and Contemplations (book), 

531


Reshetin, Andrey G., 350385, 395, 403, 

458


Reshetnev, Mikhail F., 15, 215, 310, 455

Reutov, 191, 213, 243, 246, 291

RKK Energiya, xvi, 8, 337-338, 437, 578, 

600, 602, 618; formation of, 594-595

RL-10 liquid-hydrogen–liquid-oxygen 

rocket engine, 48

RLA-120 launch vehicle concept, 540, 542, 

547, 552, 573-574

RLA-135 launch vehicle concept, 540, 542-

544, 552, 573-574

RLA-150 launch vehicle concept, 540, 542-

543, 552, 573-574

RNII (Reactive Scientific-Research 

Institute), 49, 69, 102

Rodin, Aleksandr L., 161

Rogovtseva, Ada N., 566-567

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 44, 280

Roshchin, Vladimir F., 389

Roskosmos (or Roscosmos), 76

Rosselevich, Igor A., 83

Rozhdestvenskiy, Valeriy I., 499

RS-10 ICBM, see UR-100 ICBM

RS-16A ICBM, see MR UR-100 ICBM

RS-20A ICBM, see R-36M ICBM

RSD-10, see Pioner ICBM

RSM-50 submarine-launched ballistic mis-

sile, 30

RSM-52 submarine-launched ballistic mis-

sile, 31

RT-1 solid-propellant missile, 9, 118

RT-2 ICBM, 9, 31, 118, 140, 154, 178, 

383, 550


RT-2P ICBM, 9, 410

Rukavishnikov, Nikolay N., 290, 313, 322, 

327, 330, 332, 424

Rumyantsev, Igor P., 188, 472

Russian Academy of Sciences, see Academy 

of Sciences

Russian Revolution, xv, 84, 129, 156, 225, 

390


Russian State Archive of Scientific-Technical 

Documentation (RGANTD), xiv

Russian State Archive of the Economy 

(RGAE), xviii

Russian State Library, 624

Rutherford, Ernest, 280

RVSN, see Strategic Rocket Forces

Ryabikov, Vasiliy M., 92, 272, 414-415

Ryabov, F. I., 195

Ryazanov, Yevgeniy F., 85, 269, 458

Ryazanskiy, Mikhail S., 83-84, 88, 91, 105, 

129-130, 220, 257, 264-265, 266, 375, 

418, 429, 443, 456, 473, 515, 525, 540, 

547, 570-571

Ryumin, Valeriy V., 501, 503, 579

Ryzhikh, Mikhail I., 284, 292

Ryzhkov, Nikolay I., 607

Rzhanov, Anatoliy, 534



S

SA-1 (Saturn) launch, 51

Sadovskiy, Igor N., 315, 410, 533, 536, 596

Safonov, Vsevolod D., 567

Sagdeyev, Roald, xvi, 226

Sakharov, Andrey D., 114, 180, 368

Saltykov-Shchedrin, Mikhail Ye., 172

Salyut computer, 297

Salyut space station program, xxiv, xxv, 23, 

463, 541, 577, 586, 596; and origins of 

DOS/Salyut program, 243-277; see also 

various DOS stations

Salyut(-1) space station, xi, xix, 12, 23, 406; 

and preparations for launch of, 279-319; 

and naming of, 306; and launch of, 

321-322; and missions to, 323-404; and 

reentry, 405-406; see also DOS-1

Salyut-2 space station, 23, 322, 484-485

Salyut-3 space station, 23, 322, 496-497

Salyut-4 space station, 12, 23, 322, 496, 

538, 556


Salyut-5 space station, 23, 322, 499, 501

Salyut-6 space station, 12, 322, 501-504

Salyut-7 space station, 23, 322, 405-406, 

505-519

Samara, xxiii, 15, 17; see also Kuybyshev

Samokhin, Mikhail I., 188, 193, 195, 360, 

420, 430-431, 534

Sapozhnikova, Nina I., 466

Sapun mountains, 168

Sarafanov, Gennadiy V., 497

Saryshagan, 475, 476, 478, 488

Saturn (planet), 73, 242, 586, 587, 590, 

612, 614


644

Index

Saturn Factory, 150-151



Saturn ground system, 324, 325

Saturn I launch vehicle, 42, 44, 51, 55, 62, 

91, 585

Saturn IB launch vehicle, 55-56, 135, 140, 



222, 585, 588

Saturn V launch vehicle, 45, 48, 51, 54, 

55-57, 66, 81, 107, 136, 141, 144, 155, 

171, 174, 183, 214, 227, 243, 425, 532, 

533, 544, 553, 573, 585, 587, 588, 592

Saturn launch vehicles/program, 41-44, 52, 

53, 57, 68, 103, 143, 258, 273, 577, 

585, 597


Saturn theater, 348

Savchenko, Boris, 456

Savchenko, Stanislav A., 121, 462, 466, 470

Savinykh, Viktor P., 517-518, 519

Scientific-Production Association of Applied 

Mechanics, see NPO Prikladnoy 

mekhaniki

Scientific-Research Center of Electronic 

Computer Technology, see NITsEVT

Scientific-Research Institute for the 

Operation and Repair of Aviation 

Technology, see NIIERAT

Scientific-Research Institute of Automatics 

and Instrument Building, see NIIAP

Scientific-Research Institute of Measurement 

Technology, see NII IT

Scientific-Research Institute of Nuclear 

Physics, see NIIYaF

Scientific-Research Institute of Precision 

Instruments, see NIITP

Scientific-Research Institute of Space 

Instrumentation Building, see NIIKP

Scientific-Research Institute of Thermal 

Processes, see NIITP

Scientific-Research Institute of Transport 

Machine Building, see NIItransmash

SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative), 76, 316, 

587, 589-592

Semagin, Konstantin P., 424

Semikhatov, Nikolay A., 224

Semipalatinsk, 59, 368

Semyachkin, Vladimir S., 513

Semyonov, German Ya., 458

Semyonov, Yuriy P., 238, 256, 267, 291, 

295, 296, 309, 315, 343, 344, 346, 348, 

361, 370, 378, 396, 410, 487, 533, 537, 

547, 579, 594, 596, 607

Semyorka, see R-7 ICBM

Serbin, Ivan D., 135-136, 137, 191-193, 

220, 222, 253, 266, 287, 333-336, 340, 

531-532, 540, 546, 552

Serebrov, Aleksandr A., 512-513

Sergeyev, Vladimir G., 26

Sevastopol, xxvi, 167-169

Sevastyanov, Vitaliy I., 294, 295, 376

Severin, Gay I., 293, 295, 298-299, 340, 

341, 342, 360, 361, 364, 403, 473

Severodvinsk, 31

Severov, Anatoliy A., 410, 534



Sfera geodetic satellite, 16

Shabarov, Yevgeniy V., 193, 295, 299, 304-

306, 310-311, 314-315, 339, 341, 344, 

346, 352, 360-361, 364, 367, 370, 397, 

399-400, 410, 473, 535

sharashka (or sharaga) prison workshops, 

471, 523, 534

Shatalov, Vladimir A., xxviii, 166-167, 

171, 188, 397, 472, 479; and Soyuz-4/5 

mission, 186-188, 482; and Soyuz-6/7/8 

mission, 239, 249-250, 252, 483; and 



Soyuz-10 mission, 290, 313-314, 322, 

327, 331-332, 334, 394

Shchegolkov, Boris V., 529

Shchelokov, Nikolay A., 366

Shcherbakov, Nadezhda P., 459-460

Shcheulov, Viktor I., 293, 308, 316, 397

Shchukin, Anatoliy A., 306

Shelest, Petr Ye., 454

Sheminov, Vladimir G., 298

Sheremetyevskiy, Nikolay N., 119, 149, 

152, 205, 207, 245, 456, 461, 501, 598

Shevelev, Vladimir K., 460

Shiryayev, Anatoliy N., 498

Shishkin, Oleg N., 418, 515

Shmyglevskiy, Igor P., 358, 456, 465-466, 

498, 506


Shonin, Georgiy S., 239, 249, 252

Shulgin, Petr F., 150, 195, 234

Shum, Mikhail F., 299

Shustov, Anatoliy A., 459-461

Shutenko, Viktor I., 235, 422

Sikorskiy, Igor I., 569

Simakin, Viktor V., 195, 380, 410, 419

Simferopol, 113, 504

Site No. 1 (at Tyuratam), 160, 302, 368, 

434, 473


Site No. 2 (at Tyuratam), 140, 159, 161, 

194, 197, 229, 290, 297, 303, 308, 311, 

321, 341, 345, 348, 350, 353, 354, 357, 

368, 434, 473, 484

Site No. 2B (at Tyuratam), 427

645


Rockets and People: Moon Race

Site No. 10 (at Tyuratam), 206, 296, 348, 

353, 368

Site No. 17 (at Tyuratam), 304, 345, 354, 

360, 367, 474

Site No. 31 (at Tyuratam), 11, 339, 473

Site No. 81 (at Tyuratam), 308, 310, 344

Site No. 83 (at Tyuratam), 310

Site No. 92 (at Tyuratam), 285, 299, 303, 

305, 309


Site No. 110 (at Tyuratam), 203, 211218

Site No. 112 (at Tyuratam), 195, 196

Site No. 113 (at Tyuratam), 194, 229

SKB-385 design bureau, 29-30 

SKDU (approach and correction engine 

unit), 157, 479

Skotnikov, Boris P., 456, 470, 498

Skripitsyn, A. V., 119

Skvortsov, V. F., 385

Skylab space station, 585

Slavskiy, Yefim P., 130-132

Smirnov, A. S., 188

Smirnov, Leonid V., 25, 77-78, 82, 84, 90, 

108, 134, 136, 172, 184, 220-222, 225, 

236, 239, 266, 284, 286, 287, 340, 346, 

359, 364, 365-366, 394, 397, 531-532, 

540, 551


Snegirev, V. I., 205

Sochi, 621



Sokol spacesuit, 403

Sokolov, Boris A., 236, 422, 571

Soldatenkov, Aleksandr M., 360, 473

Solodov, Dmitriy M., 298

Solovyev, Vladimir A., 503, 513-514, 599

Solovyev, Vsevolod N., 569-570

Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I., 601

Sosnovik, Isaak A., 218, 255, 292, 300, 460

Sosulin, Gennadiy K., 424

Sotnikov, Boris I., 85

Soviet Academy of Sciences, see Academy of 

Sciences


Soviet Air Force, see Air Force

Soviet Army (Ground Forces), 2, 15, 138, 

179, 196, 240, 351, 396, 616

Soviet Navy (VMF), 7, 8, 16, 24, 27, 40, 

179, 223, 240

Sovkov, Georgiy V., 188291, 533



Sovnarkhoz (Council of the National 

Economy), 92, 109

Soyuz launch vehicle family, 18, 80, 108, 

335, 578, 605

Soyuz program, xi, xlii, 22, 56, 153-154, 

157, 163, 169, 192, 225, 237, 271, 382, 

388, 541, 547, 596

Soyuz spacecraft, xviii, xix, xxiv, xxvii, 

10-12, 19, 80, 104, 121, 125, 129, 136, 

140, 153-154, 155, 157, 158, 211, 243, 

245, 247-254, 268, 269, 281, 296, 299, 

310, 343, 347, 357, 390, 398, 404, 407, 

408, 410, 454, 467, 468, 469, 484, 486, 

493, 496, 506, 536, 537, 540, 556, 

578, 600, 605; Soyuz-M spacecraft, see 

7K-TM


Soyuz-1 mission, xii, xlii, 11, 564

Soyuz-2/3 mission, xxv, 11, 472-482, 564

Soyuz-4/5 mission, 186-188, 237, 331, 

482-483


Soyuz-6/7/8 mission, 225, 237-239, 245-

253, 483-484



Soyuz-9, 295

Soyuz-10 mission, 290, 295, 313-314, 

322-335, 339, 341-342, 397



Soyuz-11 mission, xxiv, 295, 339-340, 

345, 354-355, 358-380, 387, 392-

395, 408, 416, 484; and disaster 

investigation, 395-404



Soyuz-12 mission, 404

Soyuz-14 mission, 496-497

Soyuz-15 mission, xxiv, 497-498, 506, 

538


Soyuz-19 mission, 337

Soyuz-23 mission, xxiv, 499-500

Soyuz-24 mission, 500-501

Soyuz-25 mission, xxiv, 501-503

Soyuz-T(-1) mission, 506-507

Soyuz T-2 mission, 507

Soyuz T-3 mission, 508

Soyuz T-4 mission, 508, 518

Soyuz T-5 mission, 508

Soyuz T-6 mission, xxiv, 508-512

Soyuz T-8 mission, 512-513

Soyuz T-13 mission, 519-520

Soyuz TM-16 mission, 337, 357

Soyuz-U launch vehicle, 18, 299

Soyuz-VI military complex, 407

space defense systems, see antispace defense 

(PKO)

Space Frontier Foundation, 406



space monitoring system (KKP), see 

Ministry of Defense Space Monitoring 

Service

Space Shuttle spacecraft/program, x, xix, 57, 



153, 242, 289, 323-324, 536, 545, 548, 

550, 557, 573, 574, 576-578, 585, 587, 

588-589, 592, 596, 600, 606, 614

Spektr module, 599

Spitsa, Ivan I., 323, 324

646


Index

Sputnik satellites, 45



Sputnik(-1) satellite, ix, x, xi, xix, xxi, 41, 57, 

459, 530, 598, 611



Sputnik-2 satellite, 459

Sputnik-3 satellite, 459-460

SS-20 missile, 32; see also Pioner ICBM

Stafford, Thomas P., 538

Stalin, Josef (Iosif Vissarianovich), xiii, xvii, 

63, 85, 109, 246, 275, 323, 337, 560

Stalin Prize, 150

Stalinist Purges, see Great Terror

Star City, 331, 333, 403

Starovoytov, Vladimir F., 593-594

State Archive of the Russian Federation 

(GARF), xviii

State Central Firing Range (GTsP-4), see 

Kapustin Yar

State Committee for Defense Technology 

(GKOT), 77-78, 82, 86, 99, 593

State Committee for Radio Electronics 

(GKRE), 83

Stepan, Georgiy A., 384

Stepanov, Vladimir A., 118, 421

Strategic Defense Initiative, see SDI

Strategic Rocket Forces (RVSN), 7, 8, 20, 

29, 32, 36, 179, 197, 233, 240, 474, 561

Strekalov, Gennadiy M., 312, 512-513

Strela satellites, 15-16, 36

Strogonov, Boris A., 136, 188, 253, 323, 

540

Stuhlinger, Ernst, 40, 57



SUBK (on-board complex control system), 

514-516


Sudachenko, Arkadiy L., 505

Sulimov, Oleg M., 393

Sultan, Amet-Khan, 312

Suma, 461

Supreme Council of the National Economy 

(VSNKh), 133

Supreme Soviet, 168, 215, 251, 358

Surguchev, Oleg V., 247, 346

Surveyor spacecraft, 112

Suslennikov, Vladislav V., 498, 510

Suslov, Mikhail A., xlii, 180

Suvorov, Vladimir A., 167

Sverdlov, Yakov M., 560

Sverdlovsk, 130, 131, 224



Svinets radar system, 392

Syrdarya River, 294, 311, 348, 349, 352

Syromyatnikov, Vladimir S., xxviii, 255, 

328, 333, 337, 364, 456



T

T2K lunar vehicle tests, 269, 270, 271, 486

Tabakov, Gleb M., 79-80, 111, 141, 390, 

418


Taj Mahal, 504

Taming the Fire (movie), 389, 521-522, 

559-569


Tanayev, Anatoliy A., 443

Taran missile defense system, 20

Tashkent, 162

TASS, 107, 135, 157, 163, 166, 294, 306, 

322, 335, 339, 380, 435, 468, 491



Tayfun satellites, 27, 36

Temp missile, 32, 178

Temp-2S missile, 32, 178

Tenkovtsev, Viktor V., 298

Terentyev, N. A., 188

Tereshkova, Valentina V., xliii, 188, 400

Texas, 43

Thor missile, 585

Tikhonravov, Mikhail K., 65, 458-459, 561, 

593


Timchenko, Vladimir A., 85, 395

Tishkin, Anatoliy P., 195291, 494

Titan II ICBM, 48, 585

Titan III ICBM, 48, 585

Titan-derived launch vehicles, 153

Titov, German S., 47, 188, 472, 507

Titov, Vladimir G., 512-513

Tkachev, B. P., 119

TKS (Transport-Supply Ship) of Almaz 

complex, 244, 285, 551, 556

TMK (Heavy Interplanetary Ship), 14, 72, 

113, 593; see also Mars spacecraft/pro-

grams (human)

Tokar, Yevgeniy N., 456, 462, 463

Tolstoy, Aleksey N., 226, 591, 619

Tolstoy, Lev N., 560



Topol ICBM, 32, 178

Topol-M ICBM, 178

Tregub, Yakov I., 154, 186, 220, 246, 249, 

322, 327, 329, 331, 358, 370, 371, 373, 

376, 378-380, 392, 394, 397-398, 476, 

487, 493, 501, 503

Tropa microcircuits, 423, 428-429, 435

Trufanov, Yuriy N., 344, 533, 534, 548

TsAGI (Central Aerohydrodynamic 

Institute), 286, 420

Tsander, Fridrikh A., 594

Tsarev, Aleksandr I., 188, 220, 286, 323, 

364, 365, 367, 397

647


Rockets and People: Moon Race

TsDSA, see Central Building of the Soviet 

Army

Tselina electronic intelligence satellites, 27

Tselina-2 electronic intelligence satellites, 36

TsIAM (Central Institute of Aviation Engine 

Building), 148

Tsikada navigation system, 16, 36

tsiklin propellant, 544, 545, 550, 554

Tsiklon launch vehicle, 27



Tsiklon satellite, 16

Tsiolkovskiy, Konstantin E., 48, 49, 504, 

612

TsKB Geofizika, see Geofizika Design 



Bureau/Factory

TsKB-29 design bureau, 523

TsKB-589, 127; see also Geofizika Design 

Bureau/Factory

TsKBEM (Central Design Bureau of 

Experimental Machine Building), 4, 

8-15, 17, 19, 136, 140, 151, 154, 183, 

184, 185, 190, 199, 201, 213, 218, 220, 

238, 244, 246, 253, 257-260, 265, 266, 

268, 271, 288, 291, 292, 374, 378, 

381, 397, 398, 413, 414, 416, 419, 438, 

475, 484, 487, 492-494, 503, 514, 526, 

535, 595; and transformed into NPO 

Energiya, 409-411; see also OKB-1 and 

NPO Energiya

TsKBM (Central Design Bureau of Machine 

Building), see OKB-52

TsKBM Branch No. 1 (Fili Branch), see 

OKB-52 Branch No. 1

TsNII-58 institute, 15, 458

TsNII-108 institute, 27

TsNIIKS No. 50 institute, 8

TsNIImash (Central Scientific-Research 

Institute of Machine Building), 25, 135-

136, 165, 184, 200, 231, 272, 286, 420, 

500, 504, 548, 549; see also NII-88

TsPK, see Cosmonaut(s) Training Center

TsSKB (Central Specialized Design Bureau), 

17-19, 535

TsUKOS (Central Directorate of Space 

Assets), 240, 266, 316, 346, 468, 507

TsUP (Mission Control Center), at 

Yevpatoriya, 55, 167, 184, 488, 490, 

498, 502; at Kaliningrad, 503-520, 547, 

609

Tsybin, Pavel V., 246-247, 352, 458-459



Tu-4 bomber, 227

Tu-16 bomber, 312-313

Tu-124 airplane, 169

Tu-134 airplane, 473

Tupolev, Andrey N., 61, 523, 569

Turkov, Roman A., 124, 154, 411

Tveretskiy, Aleksandr F., 493

Tyulin, Georgiy A., 53-54, 77, 92, 106, 135, 

136, 169, 183, 190, 192, 213, 220-222, 

231, 238, 239, 248, 253, 266, 286, 387, 

390-391, 504, 531, 540

Tyuratam, 109, 140, 160, 169, 295, 322, 

341, 365, 370, 377, 430-431, 473-

475, 478, 539; see also Baykonur 

Cosmodrome



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