Endocrine Abstracts, 2008 16
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- Abstract INTRODUCTION
- Abstract BACKGROUND
- Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and Obesity in Central Iran
- Laparoscopic Total Gastric Vertical Plication in Morbid Obesity.
- Abstract OBJECTIVE
- Population Attributable Risk For Diabetes Associated With Excess Weight In Tehranian Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study.
- Modified Jejunoileal Bypass Surgery with Biliary Diversion for Morbid Obesity And Changes in Liver Histology During Follow-Up.
- Abstract BACKGROUND AND AIMS
Endocrine Abstracts, 2008 16 P488
Overweight and Obesity in Iranian Adolescents
Morteza Abdollahi, Mitra Abtahi & Anahita HoushiarRad
National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Tehran, Islamic
Republic of Iran.
INTRODUCTION: The problem of increasing prevalence of overweight and
obesity as a consequence of new life styles is worrying the scientists and
health officers in less developed countries. In Iran that is experiencing an
accelerated nutrition transition overweight has turned into a major public
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We have used data on 35 924 individuals (17
996 male) from the National Food Consumption Survey. This survey
recruited 7158 households from urban and rural regions of all the 28
provinces of the country. Age was confirmed by observing the ID, weight
and height were measured due to standard protocols and BMI was
calculated. Pre-obesity was defined as BMI ≥25 and obesity as BMI ≥30.
Overweight was defined as the sum of the pre-obesity and obesity.
The prevalence of overweight was %42.4 among men and %56.5 among
women. Obesity prevalence was %10 among men and %24 among women
(P<0.001). Prevalence of pre-obesity and obesity among rural individuals is
higher than their urban counterparts (P<0.001).
obesity in Iran especially among rural women can be considered as a public
health problem. After conducting analytic studies to determine the
determinants and risk factors of overweight in different social layers,
proper and feasible action plans are needed to slow down the accelerated
trend of obesity.
Endocrine Abstracts, 2008 16 P502
The Obesity, Physical Activity Status and Dietary Pattern
in 10–12 Years Old Girls of a Mountainous Region in North
& Homeira Nasiri Reineh
National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Tehran, Iran,
Islamic Republic of Iran;
Open University, Tonekabon, Iran, Islamic Republic
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that one of major causes of obesity in
young people could be explained by physical inactivity and fat intake.
PURPOSE: This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of
obesity, dietary pattern and physical activity status in Tonekabon girls, a
mountainous city in north of Iran.
Tonekabon were studied. Weight, height, waist and hip circumferences of
subjects were measured. Body mass index (BMI) and WHR (waist-to-hip
ratio) were calculated. Food intake was assessed by using three 24-hour
dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire. Physical activity level was
measured using the physical activity questionnaire. Subjects were classified
based on the intensity of effort as having light, moderate, heavy and very
heavy levels of physical activity.
respec vely. 65% of subjects had normal weight and 12% were
underweight. In 30% of the par cipants WHR was ≥0.85.The mean
percentage values of energy intake derived from carbohydrate, protein and
fat were 60, 11 and 29%, respec vely. The physical activity level of subjects
was 45, 43 and 12% that was light, moderate and heavy, respec vely.
CONCLUSION: This study showed that overweight and obesity is common
in this population. Thus prevention of overweight and obesity through a
healthy diet and increasing the physical activity programs should be
considered. In addition, the educational program to improve nutritional
knowledge of this population is essential.
Early Child Development and Care, 2008;178(6):655-658(4)
Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and Obesity in Central
; Ayatollahi, S. M. T.
Routledge, part of the Taylor & Francis Group
1: Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
2: Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Fars, Iran
To estimate the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and to document
distribution of body mass index (BMI) at birth in Arak (central Iran)
neonates of the 10,241 live neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ra o 105)
born in 2004 in Arak. A birth weight of less than 2500 g was classiﬁed as
LBW. BMI based on the original supine length and weight data was
calculated and compared with BMI at birth of Iran reference data. The
overall prevalence of LBW was calculated as nine per cent, less pronounced
among boys than girls. Over two-thirds of Arak neonates enjoyed normal
weight and some five per cent of them were overweight or obese.
However, one-quarter of neonates were classified underweight. Girls' BMI
centiles lie below those of boys. Arak neonates were relatively free of
obesity. However, the rate of neonatal underweight was striking. Neonatal
LBW was more prevalent than the developed world. While LBW is a crude
index, underweight BMI class is an adjusted index, which should be taken
into consideration when one studies neonatal weight.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2007 Dec;17(6):793-8.
Laparoscopic Total Gastric Vertical Plication in Morbid
Talebpour M, Amoli BS.
Laparoscopic Surgical Ward, Sina Hospital, Tehran Medical University,
Tehran, Iran. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to introduce a new technique,
total gastric vertical plication (TGVP), as a restrictive operation. It has the
same result of weight loss as others with minimal risk of complication and
very low cost, especially in developing countries.
METHODS: This technique was used by one surgeon in private hospitals
during 3 years in Tehran, Iran. Patients were placed in the supine position
with a 30-degree reverse Trendelenburg position. Trocars were inserted
based on an ergonomic assessment (three 5 mm and one 10 mm). A er the
release of the greater curvature, con nuous sutures were used with 00
nylon from the fondus to 3 cm of the pylorus. A ver cal plica on was
performed in one or two layers. Distance between the stitch and lesser
curvature was 2 cm in the anterior and posterior and between each s tch,
all of them getting extra mucosal (far away from acid effect) owing to mild
tension on the sutures that cut mucosa and put on a submucosa layer.
RESULTS: TGVP was performed in 100 cases (mean age, 32; standard error
of the mean = 2.1); mostly female (F/M = 76/24) and with average body
mass index of 47 (36-58). The mean weight loss in our pa ents was 21.4%
of excessive weight loss (EWL) 1 month a er the opera on, 54% a er 6
months (72 cases), 61% a er 12 months (56 cases), 60% a er 24 months
(50 cases), and 57% a er 36 months (11 cases). The average me of follow-
up was 18 months. The mean me of opera on was 98 (70-152) minutes
and all of the patients were discharged from the hospital after an average
of 1.3 days (range, 1-4). The main postopera ve complica ons were
permanent vomiting, intracapsular liver hematoma, hypocalcemia at early
postoperative period, hepatitis, leakage at the suture line, and acute gastric
perfora on. The volume of the stomach in this condi on was 100 cc, but
just one half of it was eﬀec ve. If more than 50 cc was used, a painful
condition would occur.
CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of EWL in this technique is comparable to
other restrictive methods, but EWL appears more rapidly. Early
postoperative complications of this method are minimal, without any
important late complications. This technique needs more expertise and is
more time consuming. A long-term follow-up is advised.
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Nov;15(11):2797-808.
First Nationwide Survey Of Prevalence Of Overweight,
Underweight, And Abdominal Obesity In Iranian Adults.
Janghorbani M, Amini M, Willett WC, Mehdi Gouya M, Delavari A, Alikhani
S, Mahdavi A.
School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan,
obesity, underweight, and abdominal obesity among the adult population
survey was conducted from December 2004 to February 2005. The
selection was conducted by stratified probability cluster sampling through
household family members in Iran. Weight, height, and waist circumference
(WC) of 89,404 men and women 15 to 65 years of age (mean, 39.2 years)
were measured. The criteria for underweight, normal-weight, overweight,
and Class I, II, and III obesity were BMI <18.5, 18.5 to 24.9, 25 to 29.9, 30 to
34.9, 35 to 39.9, and >or=40 (kg/m(2)), respec vely. Abdominal obesity was
defined as WC >or=102 cm in men and >or=88 cm in women.
men and 26.5 kg/m(2) in women and 86.6 cm in men and 89.6 cm in
women, respectively. The age-adjusted prevalence of overweight or obesity
(BMI >or=25) was 42.8% in men and 57.0% in women; 11.1% of men and
25.2% of women were obese (BMI >or=30), while 6.3% of men and 5.2% of
women were underweight. Age, low physical activity, low educational
attainment, marriage, and residence in urban areas were strongly
associated with obesity. Abdominal obesity was more common among
women than men (54.5% vs. 12.9%) and greater with older age.
DISCUSSION: Excess body weight appears to be common in Iran. More
women than men present with overweight and abdominal obesity.
Prevention and treatment strategies are urgently needed to address the
health burden of obesity.
BMC Public Health. 2007 Nov 14;7:328.
Population Attributable Risk For Diabetes Associated With
Excess Weight In Tehranian Adults: A Population-Based
Hosseinpanah F, Rambod M, Azizi F.
Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences,
Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Little evidence exists regarding the magnitude of contribution of excess
weight to diabetes in the Middle East countries. This study aimed at
quantification of the impact of overweight and obesity on the incidence of
type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at a popula on level in Tehran, Iran.
Using data of a population-based short-term cohort study in Iran, which
began in 1997 with 3.6-year follow-up, we calculated the adjusted odds
ra os (OR) and popula on a ributable risks (PAR) of developing T2DM, i.e.
the proportion of diabetes that could have been avoided had overweight
and/or obesity not been present in the population.
Of the 4728 subjects studied, aged > or = 20 years, during the 3.6-year
follow-up period, 3.8% (n = 182) developed T2DM. This propor on was
1.4%, 3.6%, and 7.8% for the normal, overweight, and obese subjects,
respectively. When compared to normal BMI, the adjusted ORs for incident
diabetes were 1.76 [95% conﬁdence interval (CI) 1.07 to 2.89] for
overweight and 3.54 (95% CI 2.16 to 5.79) for obesity. The PARs adjusted
for family history of diabetes, age, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure was
23.3% for overweight and 37.1% for obesity. These ﬁgures were 7.8% and
26.6% for men and 35.3% and 48.3% for women, respec vely.
Incident T2DM is mainly a ributable to excess weight, signiﬁcantly more so
in Tehranian women than men. Nonetheless, the contribution of excess
weight in developing T2DM was lower in our short-term study than that
reported in long-term periods. This probably reflects the significant role of
other risk factors of T2DM in a short-term follow-up. Hence, prevention of
excess weight probably should be considered as a major strategy for
reducing incidence of T2DM; the contribu on of other risk factors in
developing T2DM in short-term period deserve to be studied and be taken
J Gastrointest Surg. 2007 Aug;11(8):1033-8.
Modified Jejunoileal Bypass Surgery with Biliary Diversion
for Morbid Obesity And Changes in Liver Histology During
Fazel I, Pourshams A, Merat S, Hemayati R, Sotoudeh M, Malekzadeh R.
Department of Surgery, Medical School, Shahid Beheshti University of
Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 19395/4655, Tehran, Iran. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment
for morbid obesity. The classic procedure, jejunoileal bypass, has many
complications including rapid progress of liver disease. The senior author
(I.F.) has developed a modification of jejunoileal bypass, which we believe
overcomes many of the shortcomings of the classic procedure.
included. A modified jejunoileal bypass in which the defunctionalized limb is
eliminated by anastomosing its ends to the gall bladder and cecum was
performed. Liver biopsies were taken during opera on and at a mean of 16
months later. The pa ents were followed for 5 years.
and body mass index (BMI) fell from 128 kg and 46 kg/m(2) before
opera on to 85 kg and 31 kg/m(2) at 5 years, respec vely (p < 0.001). There
was no significant change in the degree of liver steatosis and
necroinﬂamma on. The mean liver ﬁbrosis score increased from 0.1 to 0.9
(p = 0.015). No sign of advanced liver disease was observed during the 5-
CONCLUSION: The modified jejunoileal bypass is very effective in inducing
and maintaining weight loss for 5 years and does not lead to hepa c failure
or rapid progression of liver disease.
Int J Cardiol. 2007 Aug 21;120(2):281-3. Epub 2006 Oct 20.
Association of Gender and Education with Blood Lipids
and Fasting Glucose Levels in a Sample of Iranian Obese
This study aimed to assess the relationship between gender and
educational level with obesity related conditions in a sample of adult obese
subjects in Rasht, northern Iran. A total of 1113 of men and 1279 women
took part in this study. Data on age, original body weight, and educational
level were collected. Blood lipids, fasting serum sugar (FBS), waist
circumference, body weight and height were measured. The findings
showed that the men had significantly higher serum triglyceride levels
(270.0+/-202.2 vs. 203.4+/-180.1 P=0.0001) and FBS (126.5+/-103.8 vs.
118.2+/-53.8 P=0.03) and they had lower serum HDL-cholesterol levels than
the women when differences in severity of obesity, age, original weight,
waist circumference, and educational levels were taken into account. These
findings showed that blood lipid levels and FBS were not different between
educational groups in men. In women, serum HDL-cholesterol was lower,
and serum triglyceride and FBS levels were higher in lower educational
groups than higher educational ones.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2007 Jul-Sep;8(3):395-8.
Risk Factors of Breast Cancer in North of Iran: A Case-
Control in Mazandaran Province.
Naieni KH, Ardalan A, Mahmoodi M, Motevalian A, Yahyapoor Y, Yazdizadeh
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and
Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences,
Tehran, Iran. email@example.com
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian
women. This study aimed to determine risk factors for breast cancer in the
north of Iran.
province of Iran in 2004 of 250 biopsy proven cases of breast cancer and
500 neighbor controls that were matched by age within a 3 year period.
Statistical analysis was carried out using conditional logistic regression with
the backward elimination method and crude and adjusted odds ratios with
related 95% CIs were es mated with Stata 8.0 so ware
RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that higher educa on (OR=4.70,
95%CI: 1.71-12.88), late menopause (OR=4.18, 95%CI: 2.54-6.88), history of
induced abor on (OR=1.62, 95%CI: 1.13-2.31), posi ve ﬁrst-degree family
history of breast cancer (OR=3.14, 95%CI: 1.37-7.20), and BMI (OR=1.02,
95%CI: 1.01-1.03) were risk factors for breast cancer. Furthermore, having
more episodes of full term pregnancy (OR=0.87, 95%CI: 0.80-0.95), longer
dura on of breast feeding (OR=0.993, 95%CI: 0.989-0.997) and parity more
than 2 were shown to be protective factors.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed the role of some modifiable
determinants of breast cancer that can be focused by public health
intervention in the northern community of Iran. Accordingly, the women
who have one or more of the following risk factors should take the special
attention to risk of breast cancer: obesity, being menopause, positive family
history of breast cancer and history of induced abortion. The protective
effect of longer duration of breast feeding should be encouraged too.
Obes Rev. 2007 Jul;8(4):289-91.
Prevalence of Obesity among Schoolchildren in Iran.
Ayatollahi SM, Mostajabi F.
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Shiraz University of Medical
Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. firstname.lastname@example.org
The prevalence of overweight and obesity among schoolchildren aged 6.5-
11.5 years in Shiraz (southern Iran) are presented in this paper. The body
mass index (BMI) percentiles of these children are compared with the
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference data and with
the Iranian standard. The data are based on a random multistage sample
survey of 2397 healthy school a enders (1268 boys, 1129 girls) living in
Shiraz, whose heights and weights were measured in the 2002-2003
academic year. Joint height and weight measurements were obtained for
2195 schoolchildren (91.6%), consis ng of 1138 boys (89.7%) and 1057 girls
(93.6%). A total of 77 boys (6.8%) and 40 girls (3.8%) were overweight, and
the diﬀerence between them was signiﬁcant (P = 0.001). However, obesity
was signiﬁcantly less prevalent in boys (3.3%) than in girls (6.1%) (P =
0.001). Our children's median BMI lie almost on the 38th cen le of the CDC
reference data, whereas that of their counterparts born more than 10 years
ago lay on the 20th cen le of their American counterparts, showing the
development of children's obesity in a period of less than 15 years in Iran. A
positive secular trend in BMI has been seen during the past decade in Iran,
suggesting policymakers and health professionals should pay special
attention to children's health.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007 Jun;76(3):449-54. Epub 2006 Dec 4.
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