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- Abstract OBJECTIVES
- Abstract BACKGROUND
- Estimated Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Obese Adult Males in Northern Jordan.
- Abstract OBJECTIVE
- Lifestyle Related Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Jordanian Females.
- Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Residents of a City in Jordan.
- Growth Status of Jordanian Schoolchildren in Military- Funded Schools.
DISCUSSION: Obesity, poor diet, and physical inactivity create a major
chronic disease burden in Jordan that is likely to increase substantially in
the next few years. Our findings argue for establishment of a more
preventive orientation in health care and public health systems in Jordan.
Public Health Nutr. 2007 Oct;10(10):1039-46. Epub 2007 Feb 22.
The Impact of Body Mass Index and Western Advertising
and Media on Eating Style, Body Image and Nutrition
Transition among Jordanian Women.
Madanat HN, Brown RB, Hawks SR.
Department of Community Health, School of Science and Health, Utah
Valley State College, Orem 84058, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVES: To identify the impact of body mass index (BMI) and Western
advertising and media on the stage of the nutrition transition among
Jordanian women, and to evaluate their impact on eating styles and body
DESIGN: A randomised cross-sectional survey that included a variety of
culturally measured Likert-type scales and body size images. In addition,
BMI was calculated based on measured height and weight.
female interviewers who worked for the Jordan Department of Statistics.
SUBJECTS: The sample was based on a random and representative selection
of 800 mostly urban Jordanian women. A pre-test sample of 100 women
was also used to validate the instruments.
They had high levels of disordered eating attitudes and behaviors and
42.1% were considered restrained eaters. However, these women also had
higher than expected body esteem levels and desired a healthy body size.
As expected, being obese was associated with a desire to lose weight, being
a restrained and emotional eater, and having more disordered eating
attitudes and behaviors. Similarly, Western advertising and media were
associated with restrained and emotional eating, desired weight loss, and
disordered eating attitudes and behaviors.
explain the influence of obesity on health and the negative psychological
and physical consequences of restrained and emotional eating, building on
the current cultural preferences of healthy body size. Further implications
and suggestions for future research are discussed.
J Diabetes Complications. 2007 Jul-Aug;21(4):214-9.
High Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome among
Khader Y, Bateiha A, El-Khateeb M, Al-Shaikh A, Ajlouni K.
Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of
Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rapidly
increasing with a considerable ethnic variation within and across
populations. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of the
metabolic syndrome and its individual components using Adult Treatment
Panel III (ATP III) criteria among Northern Jordanians.
random sample of 1121 northern Jordanians aged 25 years and above. The
metabolic syndrome was defined by ATP III criteria.
36.3% (95% CI 33.6-39.0%) (28.7% among men and 40.9% among women).
The prevalence increased significantly with age in men and women. The
prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in women
than in men in age groups of 40-49 and 60 years and above. Low HDL
cholesterol was the most common abnormality in men (62.7%), and
abdominal obesity was the most common abnormality in women (69.1%).
considerably higher than in developed countries and other Arab
populations. An integrated approach is needed for the prevention and
treatment of the metabolic syndrome.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006 Jun 16;55(23):653-5.
Assessing Risk Factors for Chronic Disease--Jordan, 2004.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
In 2003, chronic diseases were the leading cause of mortality in Jordan;
38.2% of deaths were a ributed to cardiovascular disease and 14.3% to
cancer (Jordan Ministry of Health [MOH], unpublished data, 2004). In 2002,
MOH, with assistance from CDC and the World Health Organization (WHO),
established a behavioral risk factor surveillance program to monitor risk
factors associated with chronic diseases. This report summarizes the
findings of the second Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, which was conducted
in Jordan in 2004. The ﬁndings indicated that the prevalence of obesity had
increased by 52.3% in Jordan since 2002. In addi on, cancer screening rates
among women and seatbelt use rates overall were low compared with U.S.
rates. Development and implementation of a national plan to prevent and
control chronic diseases is needed.
Saudi Med J. 2006 May;27(5):681-6.
Estimated Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Obese Adult
Males in Northern Jordan.
Alboqai OK, Suleiman AA, Al-Natour MQ, Al-Hourani HM, Abuirmeileh NM.
Department of Clinical Nutrition, College of Royal Medical Services for
Allied Health Professions, Royal Medical Services.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between obesity, lipid profile and
blood pressure, and to quantify the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) for
the next 10 years, using the Framingham risk scoring scheme among
Jordanian adult males.
METHODS: We conducted this study in Al-Sarieh, Jordan during the period
March to May 2001. A total of 306 apparently healthy adult males, aged 30-
50 years completed all the study procedures. We selected the par cipants
using a multi-stage cluster sampling design. Dietary history and smoking
habits were obtained using a pre-tested questionnaire and interview. Blood
samples were obtained and examined for lipid profiles. We measured the
blood pressures, as well as the weight and height to calculate the body
mass index (BMI). The sample was categorized into 3 groups using the
World Health Organization classifications for BMI. The risk of CHD was
calculated using a scoring scale according to Framingham scheme. Analyses
of data were carried out using the Chi-square test, and the Analysis of
28.2 kg/m2. The percentage of current smokers was 44.1%. The mean of
serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol
and systolic blood pressure, increased significantly with increasing BMI
categories, whereas the mean of high density lipoprotein cholesterol
decreased with increasing BMI categories. Prevalence of medium and high
risk of CHD significantly increased as BMI categories increases.
moderate and high CHD categories increases as the BMI categories
increases among Jordanian adult men in Al-Sarieh area.
J Obstet Gynaecol. 2005 Jan;25(1):55-9.
Metformin in the Treatment of Clomiphene Citrate-
Resistant Women with High BMI and Primary Infertility:
Clinical Results and Reproductive Outcome.
Qublan HS, Malkawi HY.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Infirtility clinic, Royal Medical
The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and reproductive
outcome in clomiphene-citrate (CC)-resistant women with high body mass
index (BMI) and primary infertility. This was a case series based at the King
Hussein Medical center, Amman, Jordan. Nineteen CC-resistant women
with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who had high BMI and primary
infertility were studied. All women received me ormin monotherapy; 850
mg twice daily for a period of 6 months. If pregnancy occurred, me ormin
was con nued for the ﬁrst 12 weeks of pregnancy. The main outcome
measures were a reduction in the BMI, resumption of regular menses,
ovulation and pregnancy rates. Resumption of regular cycles was observed
in 13 of 19 (68.4%) women. Ovula on and pregnancy were achieved in 9
(47.4%) and 6 (31.6%) of the 19 women, respec vely. A signiﬁcant
reduction in the body weight after treatment reflected by a significant
reduction in the BMI was noted. Metformin monotherapy is effective in CC-
resistant women with morbid obesity and primary infertility and should be
considered as first-line treatment in these patients.
Saudi Med J. 2004 Sep;25(9):1245-8.
Lifestyle Related Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in
Atoum MF, Al-Hourani HM.
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health
Sciences, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To compare the lifestyle related risk factors for breast cancer
such as physical activity, cigarette smoking, the use of contraceptive pills
and increased body weight between non-familial and familial breast cancer
females in Jordan.
METHODS: This study was carried out in the Kingdom of Jordan during the
period 2000 through to 2002. A ques onnaire was used to collect
informa on from 99 females who were histologically and pathologically
diagnosed for breast cancer. Data of the questionnaire was entered and
analyzed using statistical package for social sciences.
non-familial breast cancer females and controls in the following risk factors:
physical activity, contraceptive methods, and smoking. On the other hand, a
statistically significant difference in weight was found between the familial
breast cancer females, the total breast cancer females and the controls. In
addition, the highest percentage of overweight and obese was found
among postmenopausal breast cancer females.
Jordanian breast cancer females.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003 Oct 31;52(43):1042-4.
Prevalence of Selected Risk Factors for Chronic Disease--
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
In Jordan, the average life expectancy in 2002 was 72 years, and chronic
diseases are becoming increasingly prevalent. Because personal behavior
can influence the occurrence and progression of many chronic diseases, the
Jordan Ministry of Health (JMoH) established surveillance for behavioral
risk factors, particularly those related to cardiovascular diseases and
diabetes. This report summarizes the key ﬁndings of the 2002 Behavioral
Risk Factor Survey, the first reporting segment in Jordan's surveillance
program for chronic diseases. The findings indicate that smoking, physical
inactivity, and obesity contribute substantially to the burden of chronic
disease in Jordan and underscores the need for effective public health
J Cult Divers. 2001 Summer;8(2):34-40.
Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk Factors among
Residents of a City in Jordan.
Kulwicki AD, Kepler C.
Oakland University School of Nursing, 450 O'Dowd Hall, Rochester, MI
48301, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in
many countries. The purpose of this study was to assess cardiovascular risk
factors in a stratified randomly selected sample of a city near Amman,
Jordan. A stratified sample of two hundred and nine randomly selected
households were selected for this study. Adults from each of the
households who agreed to participate in this study were asked about their
cardiovascular risk factors including cigarette smoking, high blood pressure,
cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, and sedentary lifestyle. The sample consisted
of 84 males and 125 females ranging in age from 17 to 93 years with a
mean age of 37 years. Findings iden ﬁed signiﬁcant cardiovascular risk
factors included cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension, stress, and
diabetes. Cigarette smoking was much more common in men than women.
Implications for nurses are discussed with suggestions for future research.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001 May;55(5):380-6.
Growth Status of Jordanian Schoolchildren in Military-
Hasan MA, Batieha A, Jadou H, Khawaldeh AK, Ajlouni K.
National Center for Diabetes, Endocrine and Genetics, Amman, Jordan.
comparison with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) growth charts.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
SUBJECTS AND DATA COLLECTION: A total of 5826 boys and 1414 girls,
aged 6.5-17.5 y, were included in the study. Height and weight were
measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight (kg) divided by
the square of the height (m). Socioeconomic data were collected using a
percen les of the CDC for both sexes, and then a er the age of 8.5 and 14.5
y for boys and girls, respec vely, values were just above the 10th
percentile. The body weight-for-age values were just above the 25th
percentile for boys and fluctuated between the 25th and 50th percen les
for girls; then a er the age of 14.5 and 12.5 y for boy and girls, respec vely,
values ﬂuctuated between the 25th and 50th percen les for boys and just
above the 50th percen le for girls of the CDC values. BMI values for boys
were just above the 50th percen le of the CDC and for girls values
ﬂuctuated between the 50th and 75th percen les un l the age of 13.5,
then values matched the 75th percen le of the CDC.
10th percen le of the CDC reference values during schools years. Girls have
a tendency toward obesity after puberty.
Obes Surg. 2011 Aug;21(8):1157-60.
Revision of Failed Bariatric Procedures to Roux-en-Y
Gastric Bypass (RYGB).
Khoursheed MA, Al-Bader IA, Al-Asfar FS, Mohammad AI, Shukkur M, Dashti
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Safat, P.O.
Box 24923, 13110, Kuwait, email@example.com.
Bariatric surgery for morbid obesity has been established as an effective
treatment method and has been shown to be associated with resolution of
co-morbidities. Despite its success, some patients may require revision
because of weight regain or mechanical complications. From September
2005 to December 2009, 42 pa ents underwent revisional Roux-en-Y
gastric bypass (RYGB). All procedures were performed by one surgeon.
Demographics, indications for revision, complications, and weight loss were
reviewed. Thirty-seven patients were treated with laparoscopic (n = 36) or
open (n = 1) RYGB a er failed laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding.
Four patient were treated with laparoscopic (n = 3) or open (n-1) RYGB
after failed vertical banded gastroplasty, and one patient underwent open
redo RYGB due to large gastric pouch. Conversion rate from laparoscopy to
open surgery was 2.5% (one pa ent). Mean opera ve
145.83 ± 35.19 min, and hospital stay was 3.36 ± 1.20 days. There was no
mortality. Early and late complica ons occurred in six pa ents (14.2%). The
mean follow-up was 15.83 ± 13.43 months. Mean preoperative body mass
index was 45.15 ± 7.95 that decreased to 35.23 ± 6.7, and mean
percentage excess weight loss was 41.19 ± 20.22 a er RYGB within our
follow-up period. RYGB as a revisional bariatric procedure is effective to
treat complications of restrictive procedures and to further reduce weight
in morbidly obese patients.
Public Health Nutr. 2011 Jul 15:1-5. [Epub ahead of print]
Impact of Using National V. International Definitions of
Underweight, Overweight and Obesity: An Example from
El-Ghaziri M, Boodai S, Young D, Reilly JJ.
1Life Course Nutri on and Health, Yorkhill Hospitals, University of Glasgow,
Glasgow, Scotland, UK.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the classification of overweight, obesity and
underweight using international v. national approaches in Kuwaiti
national approach (based on Kuwaiti reference data for BMI-for-age) was
compared with assessments obtained using three international approaches:
the Cole et al. and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) definitions of
thinness and of overweight and obesity (Cole-IOTF); WHO 2007; and US
Centers for Disease Control and Preven on (CDC) 2000 reference data and
definitions. The degree of agreement between the different methods was
assessed using the weighted κ statistic (κw).
SETTING: Two randomly selected public intermediate schools in Kuwait
SUBJECTS: A total of 499 10-14-year-old Kuwaiti adolescents.
RESULTS: Prevalence of overweight and obesity using Kuwaiti reference
data (36·7 %; 95 % CI 32·4, 41·1) was signiﬁcantly lower than that obtained
using international approaches - Cole-IOTF (44·7 %; 95 % CI 40·3, 49·2), CDC
2000 (44·9 %; 95 % CI 40·5, 49·4) and WHO 2007 (50·5 %; 95 % CI 46·0,
55·0) (P < 0·01). All three interna onal approaches showed almost perfect
agreement: IOTF v. WHO (κw = 0·82; 95 % CI 0·79, 0·85) and IOTF v. CDC
(κw = 0·90; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·92). However, Kuwai reference data showed
the lowest agreement with the three international approaches, the poorest
being with WHO 2007 (κw = 0·54; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·59).
national reference data and definitions while assessing underweight,
overweight and obesity for clinical and public health applications.
J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2010 Jul-Aug;31(6):505-10.
Kuwaiti Mothers' Perception of their Preschool Children's
Al-Qaoud NM, Al-Shami E, Prakash P.
Administration of Food and Nutrition, Ministry of Health, Shuwaikh, Kuwait.
children's weight status, factors associated with their perceptions, and their
plans for controlling their children's weights.
and their mothers were selected from a sample of 2329 from the Kuwait
Nutri on Surveillance System from September 2003 to June 2004. Heights
and weights were measured for the children and their mothers to identify
their weight status. Mothers were interviewed using a questionnaire to
assess their perceptions and plans for their children's weights.
RESULTS: Mothers of overweight children (97%), male children (88.4%),
and children without a family history of obesity (89%) showed signiﬁcantly
incorrect perception of their children's weight. Interestingly, the age of the
child, the mother's education level, the mother's working status, and the
mother's body mass index did not significantly contribute to correct
perception of weight status. However, two-thirds of mothers had a plan to
control their children's weight. The child's age, the body mass index of
mother and child, the family history of obesity, and a correct perception of
a child's weight by the mother were significantly associated with a plan for
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