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Dinorshoev's studies are focused on the history of philosophical



thinking, social, political, and ethical relations among the peoples of

Tajikistan, Iran, and the Arab lands. He is one of the founders and pro-

moters of Tajik philosophy and law based on the rich heritage of the

Tajik peoples that spans the lives of philosophers from Abubakr Rozi to

Ahmad Donish. Under Dinorshoev's supervision, many young philoso-

phers have come to understand the nature of their own history and cul-

ture, and have established methodologies that echo those of their

teacher.


Dinorshoev's contributions include Filosofia Nasiriddina Tusi (The

Philosophy of Nasiriddin Tusi, 1968), Vklad Ibn Sini v mirovyu tsivili-

zatsi (Ibn Sina's Contribution to World Civilization, 1980),

Naturfilosofia Ibn Sina (Ibn Sina's Philosophy of Nature, 1985), Az

Ta'rikhi Falsafai Tojik (About the History of Tajik Philosophy, 1988),

Ibn Sina i ego mirovozzrinie (Ibn Sina and His worldview, 1991),

and Falsafa dar Ahdi Somonion ( Philosophy During the Samanid Era,

2000).

Dinorshoev is the recipient of the Order of Sharaf, and the Honorary



Order of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Tajikistan.

Dinorshoev has traveled in Germany, Hungary, Turkey, Saudi Ara-

bia, and Iran. The bulk of his travels, however, have been in the repub-

lics of the former Soviet Union.



Dodkhudoev, Nazarsho

Tajik politician and public figure Nazarsho Dodkhudoev was born

on December 20, 1915, into a farming family of the village of Derzud in

Badakhshan.  He received his early education in Khorogh.

Dodkhudoev graduated from the Badakhshan Pedagogical College in

1934. In 1949 and 1950, he attended the Academy of Sciences state

management course. He received his doctorate degree in economics

from the Tashkent Economics University in 1969.

Dodkhudoev began his career as the Director of Badakhshoni Surkh

in 1934. From 1935 to 1938, he served the government in Khorogh and

Obi Garm. From 1938 to 1941, he was the Chief Editor and Director of

Pioniri Tojikiston and Vasiyyati Lenin, respectively. From 1950 to

1956, he was the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Tajikistan.  From

1956 to 1961, he was the Prime Minister of Tajikistan, as well as the

Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic.



Iraj Bashiri

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

68

Dodkhudoev retired in 1992. His contributions include several books



about Tajikistan. He received the Order of the Distinguished Worker of

Tajikistan in 1945. He also received four Orders of Lenin and the Order

of "Dusti." Dodkhudoev, an untiring contributor to the welfare of Taji-

kistan in the latter part of the twentieth century, died on June 30, 2000.



Dodkhudoev, Rahim

Tajik linguist Rahim Khalilovich Dodkhudoev was born into a

farming family in the village of Sokhchar in Shughnan on June 15,

1928. He joined the CPSU in 1950.

Dodkhudoev graduated from the Tajikistan State University in 1958

and remained at that university as a teacher until 1980. From 1980 to

1984, he was the Rector of the Institute of Russian Language and Lit-

erature of Tajikistan. He received his doctorate degree in 1980 and be-

came a professor in 1983. In 1984, he became a Senior Scientific

Worker at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences

of Tajikistan.

Dodkhudoev's research deals with the history of the development of

Pamirian phonetics, the establishment and development of Iranian lan-

guages, and their etymology. He is also interested in reducing the

lesser-known Pamiri languages into writing. He is the author of Lughati

Heterogrammahoi Pahlavi (A Dictionary of Pahlavi Heterograms,

1969) and Dasturi Mukhtasari Ta'rikhi Zaboni Tojiki (A Brief History of



the Tajiki Language, 1978). His other contributions include Materiali

po istoricheskoi fonetike shugnanskogo iazika (Information about Pho-

netics in the History of the Shughnani Language, Dushanbe, 1962) and

Pamirskai mikrotoponimia (Pamiri Microtoponymy, Dushanbe, 1975).

Dodkhudoev was a Distinguished Contributor to Education in Taji-

kistan in 1964 and of the Soviet Union in 1973. He is a recipient of the

Order of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Tajikistan.



Dodkhudoeva, Larisa

Tajik art historian Larisa Dodkhudoeva was born in 1947 in

Dushanbe. She is the daughter of Nazarsho Dodkhudoev.

Dodkhudoeva graduated from the Repin Institute of Painting,

Sculpture and Architecture of St. Petersburg in 1970. In 1978, she re-

ceived her doctorate degree in Islamic culture from the Oriental Institute

of the Academy of Sciences of Russia. In 1988, she received a doctorate

degree in history from the Institute of History, Archaeology and Eth-



Prominent Tajik Figures of the Twentieth Century

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

69

nography of the Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan. Dodkhudoeva has



received two certificates, one from the University of Nebraska for Peace

and Reconciliation in Tajikistan, 1999, and the other from the Central

European University for Cultural Turn in the Post-Colonial Epoch,

2001).


Dodkhudoeva's career began as a researcher at the Oriental Institute

in 1970. From 1993 to 1996, she was the Head of the Department of

South Asia, the Institute of World Economy and International Relations.

From 1996 to 2000, she was the Deputy Director of the Institute of

World Economy and International Relations.  At the present, she is a

Chief Researcher in the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnog-

raphy of the Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan.

Dodkhudoeva's contributions include Tajik Artists, Moscow, 1983;



Nizami Poems in the Medieval Persian Miniature Painting, Moscow,

1985; Catalogue of the Artistically Decorated Manuscripts in the Acad-



emy of Sciences of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, 1986; Zoroastrian Elements in

Islamic Art and Artifacts, 1997Art of Books in Central Asia and India

in the Sixteenth to Nineteenth Centuries, Dushanbe, 2001; Istaravshan,

Moscow, 2002; and Tajik Art, Dushanbe, 2002.

Dodkhudoeva has been the recipient of a number of grants including

Academy of Fine Arts Scholarship, Drezden, Germany (1968), Russian

Academy of Sciences, Oriental Institute Scholarship (1972-73),

UNESCO Scholarship (1986), and the Central European University

Foundation Scholarship (2001). She is also the recipient of a Distin-

guished Researcher of the Republic of Tajikistan (1992) and of an Ap-

preciation Award from the Zoroastrian College, Bombay, India (2001).

Dodkhudoeva, Lola

Tajik scholar Lola Dodkhudoeva was born in Dushanbe in 1951.

Dodkhudoeva graduated from the Leningrad State University in

1973 with a degree in Arabic studies. She started her career as a re-

search fellow in the Department of Medieval History of the Institute of

History, Archeology, and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of

Tajikistan in 1977. Thereafter she became the Head of the same insti-

tute. In 1993 and 1994, Dodkhudoeva was employed by the Ministry of

Education of Tajikistan, and from 1996 to 1997, she served as the Dep-

uty Director of the Soros Foundation's Open Society Institute in Tajiki-



Iraj Bashiri

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

70

stan. Dodkhudoeva became the Secretary-General of the UNESCO



National Commission for Tajikistan in March 2000.

Dodkhudoeva's research is focused on Islam and its role in the me-

dieval cultures of Central Asia. At the present, she is continuing her

education as a doctoral candidate in history.



Domullo Ikromcha

See Ikrom, Muhammad.



Donish, Ahmad

Tajik writer, poet, painter, and judge Ahmad Donish was born in

April, 1826, in Bukhara into a poor family headed by Mullah Nasir.

Also referred to as Ahmad Makhdum Kallah, his early education was

undertaken by his mother, a teacher. Later, he joined the mekteps and

madrasahs for a religious education. Finding rote memorization intel-

lectually uninspiring, he devoted himself to the study of the works of

the great Perso-Tajik and Arab authors. Thus, while still at school, he

studied the natural sciences, mathematics, astronomy, history, philoso-

phy, and literature on his own. He completed his formal studies, which

he paid for with money he received for his paintings, in 1850. After

that, upon the recommendation of his teacher, he found employment as

court architect and painter. In reality, however, according to Donish

himself, he merely copied manuscripts and attended to court correspon-

dence. In the latter responsibility, Amir Nasrullah (ruled 1826-1860)

personally nominated Donish as secretary for a delegation leaving for

St. Petersburg.

The first phase of Donish's career includes three trips to Russia.

These trips acquainted him with life in St. Petersburg and expanded his

knowledge and world view. During the first trip, for instance, he not

only participated in official negotiations, but visited the literary and in-

dustrial centers of St. Petersburg. Upon his return to Bukhara in 1850,

however, his high hopes that the Amir would implement some of his

suggested reforms were shattered. The Amir accepted only what was of

military and economic interest, and summarily rejected all advice re-

garding social, educational, and cultural reforms.

Donish faired even worse when the selfish Amir Muzaffar (ruled

1860-1885) systematically alienated all the worthy and experienced of-

ficials who had assisted his father. As for Donish, he was isolated. In



Prominent Tajik Figures of the Twentieth Century

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

71

fact, Donish's role in the government at this time would be totally ob-



scure were it not for his Manozir al-Kavokib (The Placement of the

Planets, 1865). Might he have been Amir Muzaffar's court astronomer?

In 1868, against all advice, Amir Muzaffar challenged Russia's

might for a second time and was defeated. Following the signing of a

forced Treaty of Friendship, the Amir sent a delegation to Russia.

Donish was appointed as the delegation's consultant. He spent the pe-

riod between June 1869 and March 1870 in St. Petersburg reestablish-

ing ties that had been severed by war. As a result of his involvement in

the negotiations, Donish's influence and prestige as Bukhara's most ex-

perienced and informed politician increased dramatically. As for

Donish, he not only acquainted himself with the economical, political,

and governmental situation of Russia, but also with Russia's history, es-

pecially its ties to Europe.

Upon his return, in recognition of his contributions to the success of

the delegation, the Amir conferred upon Donish the title of "Uroq" and

offered him a lucrative position in government. Donish refused the of-

fer. Instead, he devoted his time entirely to "Risola dar Nazmi Tamad-

dun va Ta'avun" ("Essay on the Organization of Civilization and Coop-

eration,"1870-1873) in which he examined the governmental structure

of the Emirate. The essay, which included a complete program for the

overhaul of the Bukhara bureaucracy, placed primary emphasis for gov-

ernment on the pillars of justice and education.

In considering a role for government, Donish looked to both the tra-

ditional Islamic and the new European models. For instance, he advo-

cated a European-style Majlis (parliament) that would meet in the pres-

ence of the Amir. The parliament, consisting of people from all walks of

life, would debate issues and vote on matters pertaining to public wel-

fare. All governmental concerns, after having been debated and voted

on, would be approved by the Amir. To curtail the Amir's authority

even more, Donish included the office of the wazir (prime minister).

This two-prong assault on the Amir's powers, Donish thought, would

not only introduce order into the government but would allow for a

system of checks and balances.

The Amir rejected Donish's suggestions. He did not allow even for a

reform of the traditional educational system or the institution of Euro-

pean-style courses. In addition, upon Donish's return from his third trip


Iraj Bashiri

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

72

to St. Petersburg (1883-84), he was assigned the qadiship (office of the



judge) of Bukhara's remote districts, Ghuzor and Nahrpai.

Undaunted, Donish worked on his Navodir al-Vaqoye' (Singular



Events, 1885) until the new Amir, Abdulahad (ruled 1885-1910), ap-

pointed him director of one of Bukhara's madrasahs. When Navodir

was completed, Donish copied and distributed it among his friends and

supporters. Highly influential in awakening the people, Donish's work

rallied the Amir, the court, and the Ulema against him. The book was

singled out as anti-Islamic, and its author as irreligious and unprinci-

pled. It was even rumored that Donish lacked a knowledge of Islam and

the Shari'a (law). In response to these allegations, Donish published



Mi'yor al-Tadayun (The Touchstone of Religion, 1894) in which he

analyzed the Islamic figh (jurisprudence) as it pertained to his contem-

poraries. In fact, in matters of religion, Donish easily outshone his dog-

matic accusers.

Convinced that mere improvements in the government would not be

sufficient to place Bukhara on a solid path to progress, during his last

years, Donish devoted his time to writing Risolai Ta'rikhi (Historical

Essay, 1897). In it, he severely criticized the 100-year rule of the

Manghit amirs, especially Muzaffar. Furthermore, he prophesied that

either internal strife or the will of the people would put an end to the

rule of the Manghits.

A unique individual, Donish taught himself the works of the masters

and made three arduous trips to Russia to perfect his understanding of

the world. When he became convinced of the inability of Bukharan

authorities to effect change, he severely criticized the traditional meth-

ods used in the Bukharan madrasahs, promoted the learning of foreign

languages and the exact sciences, and more poignantly, documented the

root causes of the malaise that permeated every aspect of Bukharan life.

In the field of literature, Donish influenced the literary developments of

his time by introducing realism into Tajik literature, and by broadening

the scope of the vernacular to encompass the expression of contempo-

rary concerns.

Ahmad Donish died in 1897 in Bukhara.



Dostiev, Abdulmajid

Tajik politician Abdulmajid Salimovich Dostiev was born into a

farming family of Qurghonteppa on May 10, 1946.


Prominent Tajik Figures of the Twentieth Century

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

73

Dostiev graduated from the Tajikistan Institute of Agriculture in



1974. His career began as that of a regular kolkhoz (collective farm)

farmer. He was a team leader, a chief agronomist of the Department of

Agriculture in Qurghonteppa, and an instructor in the Organization De-

partment of the Communist Party Committee of the City. In 1980, he

became a deputy to the chairman of the Lenin Kolkhoz.

Dostiev studied by correspondence and graduated from the Highest

Party School in Tashkent in 1987. Then, for eight years, he worked as

the chief of the Organization Department of the Bokhtar (formerly

Kommunisticheski) District. From 1988 to 1992, he worked as the

Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Bokhtar District, a most

active region in the ensuing Tajik civil war. In 1992, Dostiev, an active

supporter of Imomali Rahmonov, became the First Deputy Chairman of

the Tajik Parliament. Later on, he headed the government delegation at

the Inter-Tajik Negotiations and was instrumental in the composition of

the new Tajik Constitution. In 1994, Dostiev established the People's

Party of Tajikistan, and since then has served as its leader. At the pre-

sent, he is the Vice-President of the House of Representatives of the

Supreme Soviet of Tajikistan.

Dostiev's contributions include Konstitutsioi Nav (The New Consti-

tution, Moscow, 1997); Mavqi' (Circumstance, Dushanbe, 1999); Ashki

Khoma (Tear  of the Pen, Dushanbe, 1999); and Az Khud Natavon

Gurikhtan (We Cannot Run Away from Ourselves, Dushanbe, 2002).

Dostiev is the recipient of the Order of Ismoili Somoni in 2000, the

Order of the Red Banner of Courage in 1981, and others.

Dostiev has traveled to the United States, the Arab lands, Austria,

Japan, France, Germany, India, Iran, Pakistan, Italy, and others.

Dustmatov, Zohir

Tajik actor and director Zohir Dustmatov was born in Khujand on

February 10, 1914. He joined the CPSU in 1950.

After finishing his education, he worked in the public education

system. From 1931 to 1936, he served as the secretary for the education

division of the city, and established the Pushkin Comedy-Musical

Theater in Leninabad, playing several roles in that theater. These roles

included: Vali in Orshin Mololon (Arshin Malalan), by U. Hojibekov;

Mirzosharof in Hukm (Sentence), by M. Tursunzoda; and Sardori

Qalandaron in Halima (Halima), by Gh. Zafari.



Iraj Bashiri

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

74

From 1936 to 1941, Dustmatov worked at the new Lunacharskii In-



stitute of Dramatic Arts. From there he moved to the Lahuti State Acad-

emy of Dramatic Arts (1941-42), to the Pushkin Theater of Leninabad

(1942-45). Here, he brought a number of plays by writers from Soviet

republics other than Tajikistan to the stage. From 1945 to the end of his

life, he worked at the Lahuti State Academy of Dramatic Arts.

Dustmatov played both dramatic and comic roles with absolute sincer-

ity. He was a master in adding local color to certain comic roles. Here

are some of those roles: Abdulin in Mufattish (Inspector), by N. V.

Gogol, 1946; Ivan Shadrin in Odami Miltiqdor (Man with a Rifle), by

N. Pogodin, 1947; Shmata in Gunahkoroni Bigunoh (Guiltless Sinners),

by A. Ostrovskii, 1962; Azimshoh in Dokhunda (Dokhunda), by J.

Ikromi, 1954; Yormat Komondir in Tufon (Storm), by Gh. Abdullo and

Sh. Qiomov, 1957; and others.

In addition, Dustmatov has played several noteworthy roles in films.

These include Qalandar in Nasriddin dar Khujand (Nasriddin in

Khujand, 1959), court poet in Qismati Sho'ir (The Poet's Lot, 1959),

Blacksmith in Bairaqi Ohangar (The Blacksmith's Banner, 1962), and

Ishkamba in Margi Sudkhur (The Death of the Money Lender, 1966).

This latter is recognized as his most prominent achievement.

Dustmatov became a People's Artist of Tajikistan in 1957. He also

received the Red Banner of Labor, the Badge of Honor, and the Order

of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Tajikistan.

Dustmatov died in Dushanbe on February 6, 1967.




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