P rominent t ajik f igures of the

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Huvaidulloev, Nurullo

Tajik jurist Nurullo Huvaidulloev was born in the village of Ponghuz

of Asht in northern Tajikistan in 1940. After finishing high school, he

entered the Department of Law of Tajikistan State University. After

Iraj Bashiri



finishing law school, he began working at the office of the Attorney

General of Tajikistan. From 1966 to 1970, he was a member of Tajiki-

stan's High Court, and from 1970 to 1974, he was the Head of the Pub-

lic Court of the Central Region including Dushanbe. Thereafter, he be-

came the Chief Supervisor of Judicial Affairs of the Cabinet of Minis-

ters of Tajikistan.

In 1980, Huvaidulloev became a post-graduate student in the Faculty

of Law of the Academy of Public Sciences at the Central Committee of

the Communist Party, and in 1983, defended his thesis. From 1983 to

1986, he was the Acting Director of the Enforcement Division of the

Central Committee of the Communist Party. In 1989, he became the

Head of the Enforcement Division of the Central Committee of the

Communist Party of Tajikistan.

In 1990, the Supreme Soviet of Tajikistan appointed Nurullo

Huvaidulloev as the People's Representative and the Head of the Con-

sultative Committee of the Republic dealing with legislation and all af-

fairs related to law. In 1991, he became the Attorney General of the Re-

public of Tajikistan. In 1992, he became the Director of the Commis-

sion on State Exams for the Faculty of Law of the Tajikistan State Uni-


A most respected member of the Tajik judiciary system,

Huvaidulloev was known for his arrest and imprisonment of the Mayor

of Dushanbe, Maqsud Ikromov. His contention was that Ikromov had

embezzled national funds and had assisted his friends in using public

property illegally.

Huvaidulloev's reputation, in spite of the difficulties that the Repub-

lic and its people were subjected to, was impeccable. Nevertheless,

President Rahmon Nabiev dismissed him from office because he op-

posed the formation of the National Assembly and the creation of a

coalition government.

For his untiring efforts against the rise of crime in difficult circum-

stances, and for his willingness to give his all, Huvaidulloev received

many People's and State awards.

His boldness and contending with the Dushanbe Mafia brought his

life to an end when he and his driver were gunned down in Dushanbe on

August 24, 1992.

Prominent Tajik Figures of the Twentieth Century




Ibod Zarif

See Ibodov, Zarif.

Ibodov, Zarif

Tajik poet Zarif Ibodov, also referred to as Ibod Zarif, was born into

a farming family in the village of Dara in Sovet (Kulab) on September

10, 1936.

After graduating from the Dushanbe Pedagogical Institute in 1963,

Ibodov joined the staff of the journal Maktabi Sovieti until 1969. Then,

until 1980, he taught middle school and directed the Scientific Affairs

of the Inter-District Institute for the Teachers of Qurghonteppa. In 1980,

he became the director of the literary and creative activities of the musi-

cal/comedy theater of Qurghonteppa.

Ibodov's compositions date to his school days. His first poems were

published in the 1960s. His collections of poetry include Navoi Zindagi

(The Song of Life, 1978), Davlati Bidor (The Watchful State, 1983), and

Buzurgii Inson (The Greatness of Man, 1986).

The theme of his poetry is love of country. He expresses this love in

the context of the rich and beautiful Vakhsh Valley countryside and its

working people. Ibodov has also published several plays, including the

1982 Nabirahoi Boghbon (The Gardner's Grandchildren) and the 1983

Hamqadamho (The  Fellow Travelers). His 1981 Olufta (The Tough

Guy) and Norizogii Bobo (Grandfather's Dissatisfaction) brought him,

in 1982, Tajikistan's Ministry of Culture Prize. He has translated the po-

etry of Russian and Soviet poets into Tajiki.

Ibodov joined the Union of the Writers of the Soviet Union in 1983.

Ibrohimova, Mu'tabar

Tajik actor Mu'tabar Ibrohimova was born on January 3, 1930, in


In 1945, Ibrohimova entered the Leninabad Institute of Music while

working at the Leninabad Youth Theater. In 1947, she worked at the

Pushkin Comedy Musical Theater of the Republic. The first role she

performed was Asalkhon in K. Yashin and M. Muhammadov's 1949

Gulsara (Gulsara). Thereafter, she played most of the main roles in

Iraj Bashiri



spectacles presented at the time. Ibrohimova had the special ability of

portraying the essence of a character's persona. She applied her abilities

to over 150 roles and all were well received by audiences. Ibrohimova's

best roles include Modar in Modar Nigaron Bud (Mother Was Wor-

ried), by F. Ansori; Nurkhon in Nurkhon (Nurkhon), by K. Yashin;

Farmonbini in 'Isyoni Arusho (The Rebellion of the Brides), by Said

Ahmad; Shamsiniso in Suporishi Che-ka ( By Order of the Che-ka), by

A. Sidqi, Sad Barg in Dili Sho'ir (The Poet's Heart), by R. Jalil, and

Shirin in Farhod va Shirin (Farhad and Shirin), by K. Yashin.

Ibrohimova was also active in film production. Her contributions in

this genre include Vaqti ki Osio Boz Mond (When the Mill Stopped,

1973), Hich Budagon Har Chiz Gardand (The Unimportant Become

Important, 1976), and Bakhti Bigona (Strange Luck), in which she

played the roles of Farishtakhola, Oisha, and Zuhraapa, respectively.

Ibrohimova became a People's Artist of Tajikistan in 1974. She re-

ceived the Badge of Honor, three medals, and the Order of the Presid-

ium of the Supreme Soviet of Tajikistan.

Ikrom, Muhammad

Tajik intellectual, reformer, scholar, and teacher Muhammad Ikrom

ibn Abdussalom Ikrom, also referred to as Domullo Ikromcha, was born

in 1847 in the village of Boghi Kalon of Bukhara. A product of the

Bukhara schools, in 1896 Ikrom traveled to the countries of the near and

central East and became acquainted with their social setting. This

knowledge affected his thoughts and worldview, especially in compari-

son to feudally governed Bukhara.

Upon his return to Bukhara, Ikrom became a social reformer and

criticized the social structure of his contemporary Bukhara, especially

its educational system. The weight of his criticism rested on the meth-

ods of instruction employed by the Bukharan madrasahs. Ikrom was

greatly influenced by the works of Ahmad Danish. At the beginning of

the 20th century, Ikrom rose in support of the jadid schools and gave

these schools Islamic sanction. In a risola (essay) entitled Fayz al-

Noimin va I'lom al-Johilin (Wakefulness of the Sleepers and Enlighten-

ment of the Ignorant, 1910), he criticized the superstition pervasive in

his society, using realism as a weapon.

In 1918, due to Ikrom's progressive thinking and because of his criti-

cism of the government, Amir Alim Khan exiled Ikrom from Bukhara

and killed his son, Abdurrahmon. After the Revolution, Ikrom returned

Prominent Tajik Figures of the Twentieth Century



to Bukhara and worked for a while in the Soviets of the People's Re-

public of Bukhara. Ikrom influenced early 20th century thought in a

positive way. He was a teacher and, later on, a friend of Sadriddin Aini.

In both his Materiolho Oid ba Ta'rikhi Inqilobi Bukhoro (Materials

Pertaining to the History of the Bukharan Revolution) and in Yod-

doshtho (Reminiscences), Aini ascribes a great deal of value to the con-

tributions of Ikrom.

Domullo Ikromcha died in Bukhara in 1925.

Ikromi, Jalol

Tajik author Jalol Ikromi was born in Bukhara in 1909. His father

was an educated man interested in the Russian language and culture.

From childhood Ikromi, too, was interested in literature and science. He

joined the CPSU in 1945.

Ikromi received his education first in the new method-schools in

Bukhara and later (1922) at the Dorul-Mu'allimin of Bukhara. While

there, he became acquainted with Muhiddin Aminzoda and Payrav

Sulaymoni. Hearing that Sadriddin Aini was coming from Samarqand to

Bukhara, Ikromi composed a poem entitled "Ba Dukhtaroni Tojik" ("To

Tajik Girls") and presented it to the master. After analyzing the poem,

Aini advised Ikromi to stick to prose. Ikromi thus wrote his first prose

work, entitled "Shabi dar Rigistoni Bukhoro" ("A Night in the Rigistan

of Bukhara"). It was published in Rahbari Donish in1927. When the

Dorul-Mu'allimin in of Bukhara moved to Samarqand, Ikromi moved

with it so that he could benefit from Aini's knowledge. Ikromi's stay in

Samarqand, however, was short-lived. He returned to Bukhara to get

married (1930).

Between 1928 and 1930, Ikromi's "Shirin" ("Sweet"), "Rahmatullo

Ishon" ("Rahmatullah Ishan"), "Chi Boyad Kard?" ("What Needs To Be

Done?"), "Yak Havzi Purkhun" ("A Pond Filled with Blood"),

"Ghalaba" ("Victory"), and "Dor ur-Rohati Musulmonon" ("The Place

of Rest for the Muslims")  were published in Rahbari Donish.

Ikromi's enthusiasm for language took him to the Dorul-Mu'allimin  of

Tashkent. In 1930, he participated in the First Congress of Tajik Lan-

guage Specialists . Recognizing the need for talented writers and poets

in the young republic, in the same year, Ikromi took his family to

Stalinabad. There he worked on the Committee for Scientific Research,

and later on served as the editor of Rahbari Donish.

Iraj Bashiri



In 1934, Ikromi's novellas entitled Du  Hafta (Two Weeks),

Tirmor(Arrow Snake), as well as a collection of his stories which in-

cluded "Hayot" ("Life") and "Ghalaba," were published in separate vol-

umes on the occasion of the First Congress of Tajik Intellectuals. In

1937, he published "Tokhm-i Mahabbat" ("The Seed of Love").

Ikromi's "Shirin," which he revised seven times under Sadriddin

Aini's supervision, deals, on the one hand, with village life and, on the

other, with the public's hatred for the Basmachis. The heroes of the

story, Shirin and Shodmon, love each other and pursue their dream.

Shirin's parents also support the new way. Ikromi's Tirmor, which was

published in installments in Rahbari Donish (1931-34), deals with life

in a Bukhara publishing company during the time when Ikromi was a

typesetter. The novella played a decisive role in determining Ikromi's

position in Soviet Tajik literature.

In 1936, Ikromi wrote Az Maskav Chi Ovardi? (What Did You Bring

from Moscow?). The novella deals with the influence of revolutionary

changes and of sovietization on the young generation, emphasizing the

latter's love for Moscow. This novella is a first in children's literature to

deal with sovietization.

Ikromi's first novel, Shodi (Merry Making, 1949), played a major

role in the life of the republic. For the first time in Soviet Tajik litera-

ture, a literary work thoroughly examined collectivization and the role

of the Communist Party in the creation of the kolkhoz system. In the

imaginary setting of the Gulistan village, the author portrays the events

of 1930-31, when small collectives were directed to form large units.

Dealing with the spirit and the conflicts among the poor peasants,

Ikromi investigates the inherent difficulties with which the founders of

the system had to cope. Ikromi's Shodi is a landmark in Tajik literature

of the 1930s and 1940s.

During WWII, Ikromi placed his pen at the service of the socialist

regime, extolled the victories of his people and denounced Fascism. His

output at this time includes a number of stories, including, "Javonho ba

Jang Miravand" ("The Youth Go to War"), "Baroi Vatan Joni Khudro

Dariq Nomedorim" ("We Will Not Hesitate to Give Our Lives for the

Nation"), and others, all extolling the system and highlighting the role

of the Tajik people in the war.

During 1942-43, Ikromi published two novellas Dili Modar (A

Mother's Heart) and Khonai Nodir ( Nodir's House ). In Dili Modar, he

Prominent Tajik Figures of the Twentieth Century



portrays the efforts of Khovar Khola, a progressive factory worker who

works in harmony with other workers in resolving problems. In contrast

to this, Ikromi wrote Dushman (Enemy), which was brought to the stage

in 1937. It portrays the struggle of the newly-organized workers against

masked bandits. After the World War II, Ikromi wrote a number of sto-

ries all of which were published between 1945 and 1964.

In 1958,  Ikromi published his novel entitled Man Gunohkoram (I

Am Guilty). This novel is a major achievement for him both in the

choice of subject and in the psychological analyses pertaining to various

characters. In 1960, he wrote his first historical novel, dealing with the

Revolution. Called Tori 'Ankabut (The Spider's Web), it examines the

role of the Ulamo (clergy) and the youth in the Revolution. His

Dukhtari Otash (Daughter of Fire) deals with the same time period (i.e.,

end of 19th, beginning of 20th centuries). In this novel, Ikromi exam-

ines a number of issues including the status of women and girls, family,

ethics, the life of the bais and the poor, the introduction of Russian

capitalism into Bukhara, the progression of capitalism in the region, the

effects of the Russian democratic-bourgeois revolution, the rise of

jadidism, the creation of the socialist party, the gradual awakening of

the lower classes, and activities of the Peoples Revolution of Bukhara,

all of which led to the flight of the Amir and his entourage.

In 1969, a complementary volume to Dukhtari Otash, entitled

Davozdah Darvozai Bukhoro (The Twelve Gates of Bukhara) was pub-

lished. It deals with the important social, political, and historical events

during the first days of the Revolution, until Soviet rule is established.

A number of Ikromi's works have been produced as motion pictures

or have appeared on the Tajik stage. Some of his major works have

been translated into various Soviet-block languages.

Ikromi was the recipient of the Red Banner of Labor and the Badge

of Honor awards. He also garnered the Friendship Among Peoples and

the Medal for Distinguished Service.

Ikromi died in 1993.

Ikromi, Jonon

Tajik chemist Jonon Jalolovich Ikromi, son of Jalol Ikromi, was born

on June 12, 1936, in Dushanbe. He joined the CPSU in 1945.

Ikromi graduated from the Moscow State Institute of Chemistry in

1959. From 1959 to 1968, he served as a Scientific Worker. In 1968, he

became the Director of the Laboratory for Pure Fluoride Chemical Ma-

Iraj Bashiri



terials Institute of the Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan. His disserta-

tion was dedicated to the study of fluorides and his subsequent work

produced further studies of the same subject. He became a doctor in

1977, and a professor in 1979.

Ikromi is a recipient of the Red Banner of Labor, the Badge of

Honor, the Order of Dusti (Friendship) of the Republic of Tajikistan,

and Red Banner of Courage.

Ikromov, Maqsud

Tajik politician and promoter Maqsud Musoqulovich Ikromov was

born on May 2, 1947, in Panjakent. His mother was a school teacher.

His father, Musoqul Ikromov, served as the Mayor of Panjakent for

many years. Ikromov received his early education at School #1 Named

After Stepan Razin. The school is now renamed Ikromov.

Between 1964 and 1969, he studied architectural engineering at the

Technological College. From 1975 to 1980 he was the Director of the

16 and 18 DSU Construction Divisions. Between 1980 and 1982, he

was the chief engineer of the construction bank for the city of

Dushanbe. In 1982 and 1983, he was the Director of Constructions re-

lated to the Central Committee of the Communist Party and in 1983 and

1986, he was the Secretary of the Communist Party of Kulab. From

1987 to 1992, he was the Mayor of Dushanbe. In 1992, between March

and the 25


 of September, he was in prison. He was set free without

trial. From October 1992 until March 1993, he was the Mayor of

Dushanbe for a second term. In March 1993, he left Dushanbe.

Between 1993 and 1997, he worked in private business in Moscow

and St. Petersburg.

Ikromov was killed in an automobile accident near Samarqand, on

December 23, 1997.


See Mamadkhonov, Hassan.

Irkaboev, Rustam

Tajik actor and director Rustam Sulaimonovich Irkaboev was born

in Khujand on January 29, 1913. He joined the CPSU in 1947.

Irkaboev began his career in 1933 and, until the end of his life,

worked at the A. S. Pushkin Theater in Leninabad. His contributions in-

Prominent Tajik Figures of the Twentieth Century



clude Arsalon in Du Kommunist (Two Communists), by Yashin;

Ferdinand in Makr va Mahabbat (Cunning and Love), by F. Schiller;

and Askar in Orshin Mololon (Arshin Malalan), by U Hojibekov.

He also played in Farhad va Shirin (Farhad and Shirin), by K.

Yashin, Boi va Khidmatguzor (The Rich Man and the Servant), by H.

Hakimzoda and Tohir va Zuhro (Tohir and Zuhro), by S. Abdullo.

Irkaboev became a People's Artist of Tajikistan in 1960, and is the

recipient of the Badge of Honor and other medals.

Irkaev, Mullo

Tajik historian Mullo Irkaev was born in the village of Sairob of

Boisun, Uzbekistan, on May 9, 1910. He joined the CPSU in 1940.

Irkaev graduated from the Tashkent Pedagogical School in 1929 and

from the Faculty of History of the Dushanbe Pedagogical Institute in

1939. Between 1941 and 1949, he was a Lecturer, division chair, and

acting director of propaganda and agitation of the Central Committee of

the Communist Party of Tajikistan. He also served as the Secretary of

the Party Committee of Dushanbe and Kulab. He became a professor in

1963 and an academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet

Union in 1967. From 1950 to 1975, he was Head of the Department of

History of the Soviet Union at Tajikistan State University. In 1975, he

became a professor at the Department of History of the Soviet Union.

Irkaev's research deals with Lenin's policy for the Communist Party,

friendship among the peoples of the republics of the Union, and the

contribution of the Russians to the elevation of Tajik culture. His con-

tributions include Kommunisticheskaia organizatsia v Tadzhikistane

(Communist Organization in Tajikistan, Dushanbe, 1976); Barpo va

Mustahkam Kardani Hokemiyati Soveti dar Tojikiston (Establishment

and Consolidation of Soviet Rule in Tajikistan, Dushanbe, 1966);

Oktiobri Kabir va az Navsozii Sotsioli u Madanii Dehot (The Great

October Revolution and the Social and Civilizational Reconstruction of

the Villages, Dushanbe, 1982); and Dehqononi Kolkhozi--Binokoroni

Fa'oli Sotsialism (Kolkhoz Farmers--the Active Builders of Socialism,

Dushanbe, 1986).

Irkaev was recognized as a Distinguished Teacher and a Distin-

guished Scientific Contributor to Tajikistan in 1964. He is also the re-

cipient of two Orders of the Red Banner of Labor, two Badges of

Honor, and the Honorary Order of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet

of Tajikistan.

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