The Prospective Association of General and Central
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- Abstract OBJECTIVE
- Overweight And Obesity Among Iranian Female Adolescents In Rasht: More Overweight In The Lower Social Group.
- Obesity and Dyslipidemia among Young General Physicians in Iran.
- Abstract BACKGROUND
- MATERIALS AND METHODS
- Correlation of Dyslipidemia with Waist to Height Ratio, Waist Circumference, and Body Mass Index in Iranian Adults.
- Associa on of Body Mass Index and Trp64Arg Polymorphism of the Beta3-Adrenoreceptor Gene and Leptin Level in Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.
The Prospective Association of General and Central
Obesity Variables with Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Adults,
Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.
Hadaegh F, Zabetian A, Harati H, Azizi F.
Endocrine Research Center, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical
Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate which anthropometric index is the best
predictor of diabetes in relation to age.
METHODS: In this longitudinal study 4479 non-diabetic men and women
aged > or =20 years were followed for 3.6 years. Diabetes with its risk
factors and obesity were defined according to the ADA and the WHO
criteria, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the
odds ra o (OR) of developing diabetes in model 1 including only the
anthropometric measure and in model 2 adjusted for common diabetes risk
factors and in model 3 adjusted for other anthropometric indices plus all
the variables in model 2.
RESULTS: A total of 166 new cases of type 2 diabetes were diagnosed. In
subjects aged <60 years general obesity and high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)
predicted diabetes in all three models with OR of 2.4 and 2.6 in model 3,
respectively, while high waist circumference (WC) lost it association with
diabetes in the full model. In subjects aged > or =60 years, however, high
WC was the only independent predictor of diabetes in model 3 with OR of
3.8 while high WHR and general obesity predicted diabetes in models 1 and
2, respec vely.
CONCLUSION: General obesity and high WHR in Iranian subjects aged <60
years and high WC in older ones are the important predictors of type 2
Eur J Pediatr. 2007 May;166(5):453-4. Epub 2006 Oct 17.
Prevalence of Asthma Related to BMI in Adolescents in
Tehran, Iran, 2004-2005.
Bidad K, Anari S, Aghamohammadi A, Pourpak Z, Moayeri H.
Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Tehran University of
Medical Sciences, No 62, Dr Gharib st, Keshavarz Blvd., Tehran, 14194, Iran.
Both asthma and obesity have become more common in affluent societies
during the recent decades, and several studies have shown a correlation
between the presence of asthma and obesity.
Public Health Nutr. 2007 May;10(5):450-3.
Overweight And Obesity Among Iranian Female
Adolescents In Rasht: More Overweight In The Lower
Department of Human Nutrition, School of Public Health, Guilan University
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the frequency of overweight
and obesity among Iranian adolescent girls aged 14-17 years and its
possible associa on with maternal educa on in Rasht city in 2005.
selected schoolgirls were studied. Data on age and mother's years of
schooling were collected by questionnaire and body weight and height
were measured. Overweight and obesity were defined using age- and sex-
specific body mass index (BMI) cut-off points proposed by the International
Obesity Task Force (IOTF), and compared with 85th and 95th BMI percentile
curves of the IOTF reference population, respectively. Data analyses
included two groups based on mother's years of schooling: less educated ( <
12 years) and more educated ( > or = 12 years).
RESULTS: The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in this
popula on was 21.9 and 5.3%, respec vely. Results of logis c regression
analysis showed that the risk of overweight was higher for lower age group
(odds ra o = 2.0, 95% conﬁdence interval 0.18-3.09). Overweight was more
common in girls with less educated mothers than in girls with more
educated mothers (26.0 vs. 19.8%, P = 0.03).
CONCLUSION: These data indicate that overweight is highly prevalent
among adolescent girls, especially in lower social groups in Rasht, and the
rate is exceeding those reported in other parts of the country. Preventive
strategies need to be adopted to combat the epidemic of overweight and
obesity in this population.
Int J Cardiol. 2007 May 16;118(1):111-2. Epub 2006 Aug 28.
Obesity and Dyslipidemia among Young General
Physicians in Iran.
This study describes overweight, obesity and dyslipidemia in young general
physicians aged 26-40 years in Rasht City, northern Iran. A random sample
of 272 physicians (137 men and 135 women) was studied. Data on age,
body weight, height and original weight were collected; and blood lipid
levels were measured. The findings showed that the prevalence of
overweight/obesity among men and women were 54.5% and 13.3%
respectively. High serum LDL-c levels (54.5%) and low serum level of HDL-c
(66.7%) was the main feature of dyslipidemia in the study men and women,
respectively. These data showed that overweight and blood lipid
abnormality is highly prevalent in this group of young physicians. The
increasing prevalence of obesity in the Iranian medical professions is a
cause for concern.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Apr;31(4):713-7. Epub 2006 Sep 12.
An Open-Label Pilot Study of the Combination Therapy of
Metformin and Fluoxetine for Weight Reduction.
Dastjerdi MS, Kazemi F, Najafian A, Mohammady M, Aminorroaya A, Amini
Department of Internal Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences,
Isfahan Endocrine & Metabolism Research Center, Sedigheh Tahereh
Medical Research Complex, Isfahan, Iran. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a very important risk factor for cardiovascular
disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoarthri s, fa y liver,
metabolic syndrome and respiratory problems. Many weight-reducing
drugs cannot be used in obese patients because of numerous
complications. Fluoxetine, an antidepressant, and metformin, an
antidiabetic drug, reduce weight as their side effect, but the potency of
each drug is not always enough. Here, we studied the effects of
combination therapy of them for weight reduction in obese women.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was designed as an open,
prospective, controlled clinical trial. Obese and overweight patients
referred to obesity clinics were first put under a diet and behavior therapy
education program before being invited to this study. The patients who
accepted drug therapy were put in the case group. Those who did not
accept drug therapy were put in the control group. Fluoxe ne, 20 mg daily,
and metformin, 500 mg three
mes daily, were prescribed to the
participants. Weight and body mass index (BMI) changes within case and
control groups were analyzed by paired t-tests and between groups by t-
testing. Side effects were evaluated by interview and questionnaire.
clinics. Of these, 177 were female with 91 being volunteers for this study.
Of this 91, 66 were in the case group and 25 in the control group.
a 3.43 U decrease in BMI (10.14%) were observed in par cipants of the case
group that was sta s cally signiﬁcant (P<0.0001). The par cipants of the
control group were followed for a mean period of 8.12 months. In this
period, the par cipants of the control group showed a 0.48 kg decrease in
weight (0.52%) and a 0.11 U decrease in BMI (0.42%). This was not
significant. No serious side effects of the drugs were observed in the case
CONCLUSION: This open-label pilot study of combination therapy of
metformin and fluoxetine gave encouraging weight reduction, and these
results suggest the need for a randomized double-blind clinical trial
comparing the two components and the combination to placebo.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;61(4):478-82. Epub 2006 Oct 25.
Comparison between Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis
and Body Mass Index Methods in
Obesity Prevalence in Ahvazi Women.
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Paramedicine, Ahvaz Jundi-Shapour
University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Obesity has an increasing trend worldwide. Recently,
application of body mass index (BMI) cutoff points of obesity classification
for all population studies has been questioned. On the other hand,
bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a safe, accurate, reliable and
inexpensive method for screening the overweight and obesity in such
OBJECTIVES: There were three objectives followed in this research: to
determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight in married women
using BMI and BIA methods; to evaluate the correlation between these
methods; and to compare the women's obesity degrees according to their
years aged, who had referred to 14 health centers of the city of Ahvaz
(center of Khouzestan province, south-west of Iran) were recruited in a
cross-sectional design, and their socio-economic and anthropometric
questionnaires were completed by the trained students. Body fat percent
(%BF) and body fat mass (BFM) were measured using BIA method. BMI>25
and >30 kg/m(2) were used as criteria for determining the overweight and
obese women, respec vely. %BF>35% was regarded as cutoﬀ for deﬁning
majority of them were housewives with secondary educational level. Their
BMI, %BF, waist-to-hip ratio, and mid-upper arm circumference means
were: 25.9(4.7) kg/m(2), 27.6(7.3)%, 0.75(0.08) and 27.9(3.9) cm,
respectively. Central obesity was prevalent in 21.2% of the subjects.
Prevalence of obesity determined by BMI and BIA methods was 18.3 and
15.5% and women within normal ranges were detected in 44.7 and 46% of
the subjects by these methods, respectively. However, thin (underweight)
women were 2.6 and 14.6% of the subjects studied, respec vely. About one
half of the women were overweight or obese. BMI was statistically
correlated with BFM (r=0.86; P<0.0001) and %BF (r=0.77; P<0.0001).
Women with higher educational levels had lower body fat percentage and
BMI than the other subjects with lower degrees (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Obesity and overweight is prevalent in about one-half of the
Ahvazian married women and more than one-fifth of the subjects have
central obesity. BIA and BMI methods can similarly detect the normal and
obese married women but they are different in determining the
underweight female subjects. Women with higher educational grades tend
to have lower BMI levels.
Indian J Pediatr. 2007 Mar;74(3):265-7.
Obesity and Related Risk Factors.
Mozaffari H, Nabaei B.
Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Children Medical
Center, Tehran, Iran. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among
Iranian schoolgirls and to identify risk factors which lead to obesity.
METHOD: This cross-sec onal study was conducted in 2002 and a sample
of 1800 female students between 7-12 years old was obtained using a
multistage cluster sampling method from Tehran. Height and weight were
measured and related socio-economic information was collected.
RESULTS: The overall percent of overweight and obesity was 13.3% and
7.7% respec vely. BMI (Body Mass Index) was directly and
signiﬁcantly(r=+0.28, P< 0.001) correlated with increasing age. Physical
activity was significantly different between obese and non-obese children.
(P=0.03) Also, economical factors such as the type of school
(private&public) were diﬀerent in these children. (P=0.03) The sta stical
analysis of the data revealed a significant and inverse correlation(r=-0.03,
P=0.04) between maternal educa on and occurrence of overweight and
obesity in children.
girls was high. Advanced age, lack of physical inactivity, low economical
factors and maternal educational status could be risk factors for obesity in
Obes Rev. 2007 Jan;8(1):3-10.
Prevalence of Obesity, Central Obesity and The Associated
Factors in Urban Popula on Aged 20-70 Years, in the
North of Iran: A Population-Based Study and Regression
Hajian-Tilaki KO, Heidari B.
Department of Social Medicine and Health, Babol Faculty of Medicine,
Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
Obesity is an undesirable outcome of changing of lifestyle and behaviours.
It is also reversible predisposing factor for the development of several
debilitating diseases. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence
rate of obesity, overweight, central obesity and their associated factors in
the north of Iran. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study
with a sample of 1800 women and 1800 men with respective mean ages of
37.5 +/- 13.0 and 38.5 +/- 14.2 years of urban popula on aged 20-70 years
living in the north of Iran. The demographic and lifestyle data, in particular,
age, gender, marital status, marriage age, family history of obesity,
educational level, occupation, occupational and leisure time physical
activity, duration of exercise per week, parity and the number of children
were collected with a designed questionnaire. Diagnosis of obesity and
central obesity were confirmed by the WHO standard recommended
method by determining of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference
(WC). Logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds
ra o (OR) and its 95% conﬁdence interval. Over half of the study subjects
were at educational levels of high school or higher; 79.4% of popula on
was married and 35.3% had a family history of parental obesity. The
majority of subjects in particular women had none or low levels of physical
activity. The overall prevalence rates of obesity and overweight were 18.8%
and 34.8% respec vely. The overall prevalence rate of central obesity was
28.3%. The rate of obesity in women was higher than men (P < 0.0001). In
both genders, particularly in the women, the rate of obesity was raised by
increasing age. There was an inverse relation between the risk of obesity
and marriage age, the high level of educa on (OR = 0.19, P < 0.0001),
severe occupa onal ac vity (OR = 0.44, P < 0.0001), the level of exercise (in
subjects with 3-4 h exercise per week, OR = 0.58, P < 0.001) and leisure me
ac vity. Marriage, history of parental obesity and parity > or =5 were
associated with increased risk of obesity (OR = 2.2, P < 0.001 and OR = 2.43,
P < 0.0001 and OR = 3.73, P < 0.0001 respec vely). The results of this study
indicate an increased rate of obesity and overweigh in the north population
of Iran. With respect to these findings, low level of activity and education,
parity, family history of obesity, marriage at earlier age and ageing are
responsible for both obesity and central obesity in the north of Iran.
Therefore, a community-based multiple strategies are required to combat
with increasing rate of obesity and its subsequent complications such as
diabetes, coronary artery disease, hypertension and osteoarthritis.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(2):248-53.
Correlation of Dyslipidemia with Waist to Height Ratio,
Waist Circumference, and Body Mass Index in Iranian
Chehrei A, Sadrnia S, Keshteli AH, Daneshmand MA, Rezaei J.
Department of pathology, Alzahra University Hospital, Soffeh Street,
Isfahan, Iran. Alichehrei@yahoo.com
Overweight and obesity are increasing problems in many countries and are
related to multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Although imaging techniques
can determine total body fat and its distribution reliably, anthropometric
measurements remain important in clinical practice. The purpose of this
study was to determine the association between some anthropometric
measurements and dyslipidemia as an important cardiovascular risk factor
in Iranian popula on. A total of 750 subjects (580 females and 170 males)
were selected by multistage random sampling from residents of Arak (Iran)
and related villages in 2005. None of them had any signiﬁcant past medical
history. Body mass index(BMI), waist circumference(WC), and waist to
height ratio(W/Ht) of subjects were measured to identify their relationship
with their lipid profile including total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), high
cholesterol(LDL-C), and the ratio of total cholesterol to high density
lipoprotein cholesterol(TC/HDL-C). Fasting blood sugar (FBS) was also
measured. WC and W/Ht showed greater correlation with TC, TG, LDL-C,
TC/HDL-C level than did BMI. Among lipid profile, TG showed the closest
correla on with W/Ht (r=0.309, p<0.001) and WC (r=0.308, p<0.001). HDL-C
level did not show any statistical relationship with W/Ht, but it was weakly
correlated with WC (r=-0.088, p<0.05). None of the indices showed any
association with FBS level. It can be concluded that W/Ht and WC can best
predict dyslipidemia in an Iranian adult population. We suggest using both
W/Ht and WC as inexpensive and easy methods in clinical and
Br J Biomed Sci. 2007;64(3):117-20.
Associa on of Body Mass Index and Trp64Arg
Polymorphism of the Beta3-Adrenoreceptor Gene and
Leptin Level in Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.
Eshraghi P, Hedayati M, Daneshpour MS, Mirmiran P, Azizi F.
Institute of Endocrine Sciences, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical
Sciences, Tehran, I. R. Iran.
In this study the associa on between beta3-adrenoceptor gene
polymorphism and serum concentration of leptin with body mass index
(BMI) is investigated. Using subjects in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study,
genotyping of the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenoreceptor
gene was performed using a restriction fragment length polymorphism-
polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) technique was used and the
associa on with obesity was inves gated. At total of 197 men and 204
women were divided into four groups (BMI<20, 20< or =BMI<25, 25< or
=BMI<30, BMI< or =30) and 97, 98, 104 and 102 subjects, respec vely, were
placed randomly in the four groups. Leptin level was determined by an
enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method and FBS, HDL-C, triglyceride and total
cholesterol levels were determined by an enzyme colorimetric method.
Body mass index (BMI) was also measured. The A (Arg) allele frequency was
0.08 among the popula on and its presence was signiﬁcantly associated
with increase of lep n level (AA/TA, 30.5+/-24.8 ng/mL; TT, 22.6+/-20.9
ng/mL; P=0.014) but there was no signiﬁcant associa on with increased
BMI (AA/TA, 27+/-5.6 kg/m2; TT, 25.4+/-5.5 kg/m2; P=0.072). These data
show that the presence of the Arg64 allele at the beta3-adenoceptor gene
locus is related to increase in leptin level in this population, but is not
related to body mass index.
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