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- Intraabdominal Pressure after Full Abdominoplasty in Obese Multiparous Patients.
- The Role of Social Factors and Weight Status in Ideal Body-Shape Preferences as Perceived By Arab Women
- Abstract OBJECTIVE
- Visceral Obesity and Inflammation Markers in Relation to Serum Prostate Volume Biomarkers among Apparently Healthy Men.
- Abstract BACKGROUND
- Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
The study was conducted to analyze the patterns of growth in height and
weight and the prevalence of over-weight among Qatari school children
aged 6-18 years. Weights and heights of a cross-sectional sample of Qatari
school children were measured. These children were selected randomly, in
equal proportions of age and gender, from different schools from urban
and semi-urban districts. Appropriate statistical procedures were
performed to produce smooth percentile curves for boys and girls using a
two-stage approach. Initial curve smoothing for selected major percentiles
was accomplished by various paramet-ric and non-parametric procedures.
In the second stage, a normalization procedure was used for creating z-
scores that closely matched the smooth percentile curves. The height and
weight results were compared with the international reference values of
National Center for Health Statistics/Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (NCHS/CDC). The prevalence of over-weight was calculated
using the new Interna onal Obesity Task Force (IOTF) reference. Of 7442
Qatari children studied, 50.3% were male and 49.7%' female. The mean
values for height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) increased with the
age for both boys and girls un l the age of 18 years, except BMI, which
stabilized at the age of 16-18 years at around 22.6 for boys and at 21.6 for
girls. The growth patterns of the Qatari children, aged 6-18 years, appeared
to be comparable with those of the NCHS/CDC reference. The weight-for-
age centile curves of the Qatari boys tended to be superior to those of the
NCHS/CDC reference un l the age of 15 years, less so those of the Qatari
girls. In contrast, the height-for-age centile curves of the Qatari children
tended to deviate in a negative sense from the NCHS/CDC reference curves,
for boys and girls from age around 11 years and 13 years respec vely. The
deviation of the smoothed median height-for-age curves from the
reference in adolescence could most likely be attributed to a later
maturation among the Qatari children. The prevalence of under-weight,
over-weight, and obesity for the Qatari children was quite below the CDC
and IOTF rates, except for girls aged 6-9 years. More males than females
were over-weight or obese according to either the local, the CDC, or the
IOTF reference, and the prevalence increased with age. A good percentage
of the Qatari children was at risk of being over-weight, which needs more
attention because the development of obesity results in different types of
diseases associated with changes in body composition.
Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004 Jun;113(7):2145-50; discussion 2151-5.
Intraabdominal Pressure after Full Abdominoplasty in
Obese Multiparous Patients.
Al-Basti HB, El-Khatib HA, Taha A, Sattar HA, Bener A.
Department of Plastic Surgery, Hamad General Hospital and Hamad Medical
Corporation, Doha, Qatar. firstname.lastname@example.org
This study measured intraabdominal pressure in morbidly obese and
musculoaponeurotic plication. The purpose of this study was to evaluate
any potential adverse effect on pulmonary function by virtue of pulmonary
function tests and measurement of peak airway pressure. The study
included 43 mul parous, morbidly obese women (mean body mass index,
35.8 kg/m2) with a mean age (+/- SD) of 38.6 +/- 7 years. All had full
abdominoplasty and repair of the musculoaponeurotic system during the
period from June of 1999 to May of 2002. Forty-three morbidly obese
mul parous pa ents were seen over a period of 24 months. Their
intraabdominal pressure was estimated by measuring the intravesical
pressure before and after repair of severe diastases (divarication) of the
rectus abdominis muscles with severely flaccid myofascial component
before using a hydrometer connected to a Foley catheter both before and
after repair. All patients had pulmonary function checked before and 2
months after the repair. The study confirmed that there are minimal
changes on the intraabdominal pressure parameters compared with
measurement before and after full abdominoplasty with plication of the
rectus muscles, with minimal to negligible changes in the intrathoracic
pressure. These changes are clinically and statistically significant (p <
0.0001). The study also recommended the safety of full abdominoplasty
and repair of the musculoaponeurotic system in multiparous and morbidly
obese patients. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was
found in pulmonary function parameters before and after surgery in
patients with a history of bronchial asthma.
Journal of Biosocial Science (2004), 36: 699-707
The Role of Social Factors and Weight Status in Ideal
Body-Shape Preferences as Perceived By Arab Women
ABDULRAHMAN O. MUSAIGER
, NORA E. SHAHBEEK
Directorate of Nutritional Studies, Bahrain Centre for Studies & Research,
Hamad Medical Corporation, Ministry of Health, Doha, Qatar
College of Science, Bahrain University, Bahrain
This study investigated the social factors associated with body-shape
preferences for females and males as perceived by Arab women living in
Qatar, and correlated the current weight status of women studied with
these preferences. The subjects were 535 non-pregnant Arab women aged
20–67 years, who attended heath centres in Doha City, the capital of the
State of Qatar. Illustrations of male and female body shapes ranging from
very thin to very obese using the 9-figure Silhouettes scale were shown to
women, and they were asked to select their preferred figure. Body mass
index (BMI) was used to determine the weight status of women studied.
Age, educational level and employment status were found to be
significantly associated with ideal body-shape preference for both males
and females, whereas marital status and current weight status had no
significant association. In general, the Arab women studied selected a more
mid-range of body fatness for males than for females. It is concluded that
attention should be given to sociocultural factors, such as body-shape
preferences, in any programmes to promote ideal body weight for the
General Medicine 2011;2(5):Wmc001927
Prospective Incidence Study of Diabetes Mellitus in
Morbidly Obese Saudi Patients
Dr. Adel A Al-johari.
Corresponding Author Dr. Adel A Al-johari.
Consultant General and Laparoscopic Surgeon. King abdul Azez
University.Jeddah .K S A., P O BOX80215. Jeddah 21589. K S A. - Saudi
Submitting Author Dr. Christine N Grace
obesity and diabetes mellitus in a sample of morbidly obese Saudi patients.
DESIGN: 201 morbidly obese pa ents undergoing surgery for obesity were
preoperatively assessed. Assessment included complete blood picture, liver
enzymes, lipid profile, blood sugar and hormones. Blood pressure was
measured and liver ultrasound was done.
RESULTS: 198 pa ents were enrolled in the study, from which 46 persons
(23.23%) were diabe cs and 22 (11.11%) were hypertensive. The body mass
index (BMI) of both diabetic and non diabetic groups was of significance (p-
value = 0.108). Obesity has proven to appear more in childhood 141
(71.21%), followed by in adults 30 (15.15%) and then at the age of puberty
17 ( 8.58%). There was a high signiﬁcance (p-value = 0.005) in morbidly
obese hypertensive patients having diabetes than in morbidly obese
patients with normal blood pressure and do not suffer from diabetes.
CONCLUSION: Obesity is becoming a major health problem as it is
considered a risk factor in metabolic diseases. It is also becoming more
popular in children increasing the incidence of its morbidity disorders due
to the longer exposure. Abdominal obesity is a recognized risk factor for
both type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease resulted in the
metabolic consequences of obesity, such as insulin resistance and impaired
In summary, fatty liver is relatively common in overweight and obese
volunteers with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and is an aspect of body
composition related to severity of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and
Eur J Clin Invest. 2011 Sep;41(9):987-94. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-
2362.2011.02496.x. Epub 2011 Mar 7.
Visceral Obesity and Inflammation Markers in Relation to
Serum Prostate Volume Biomarkers among Apparently
Alokail MS, Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Alkharfy KM, Sabico SB, Ullrich A.
Department of Biochemistry, College of Science Department of Pharmacy,
King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abteilung Molekularbiologie,
Max-Planck-Institut fur Biochemie, Martinsried, Germany.
Eur J Clin Invest 2011; 41 (9): 987-994 ABSTRACT: Background Prostate
disease incidence is expected to rise among developing nations secondary
to increased prevalence of obesity and the elderly. Although many case-
control studies have associated obesity to prostate cancer aggressiveness,
few have correlated markers of prostate pathology to biomarkers of
visceral obesity and insulin resistance, using an apparently healthy cohort.
This study aims to fill this gap. Materials and methods The 219 consen ng
adult Arab men, aged 30-70 years, were included in this cross-sectional
study. Demographics were noted and anthropometrics measured. Fasting
blood samples were extracted, and glycaemic and lipid profile were
determined using routine laboratory methods. Serum adipocytokines and
inflammatory markers were measured using multiplex assays. Total
prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), parathyroid-related
protein (PTHrP) and endoglin were measured using enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assays. Results Serum triglycerides and waist-hip ratio
(WHR) were significantly and positively associated with circulating (tPSA)
levels in all subjects (P < 0·01). Systolic blood pressure (SBP),
adiponectin, active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (aPAI-1) and insulin-
like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) had signiﬁcant inverse associa ons to tPSA.
Stepwise linear regression revealed that adiponectin, IGF-1, WHR and
PTHrP explained 30% of variance in tPSA levels (P < 0·0001), while SBP,
resis n and BMI explained 18·7% of variance in endoglin (P = 0·001).
Conclusions The associations of adiponectin and WHR strengthen the link
between insulin resistance and visceral adiposity to prostate volume
markers among apparently healthy Arab men. Follow-up studies are
needed to extend these preliminary findings so that early interventions can
be provided to those at increased risk.
Saudi Med J. 2011 Jun;32(6):621-7.
Unhealthy Nutritional Habits in University Students are a
Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Diseases.
Abdel-Megeid FY, Abdelkarem HM, El-Fetouh AM.
Food Science & Nutrition Department, Food Science & Agriculture College,
King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between the nutritional habits of
university students with health parameters related to cardiovascular risk.
METHODS: Three hundred and twelve students (180 females and 132
males; mean age 21.1 +/- 2.8 years) a ending King Saud University, Riyadh,
KSA were randomly selected from the university register and invited to
par cipate in the study during 2008-2009. Students who consented to
participate completed a self-reported questionnaire including: nutritional
screen, health habits, and lifestyle practice. Daily food consumption was
recorded, and nutritional analysis was performed. Blood pressure (BP) was
RESULTS: A quarter of students was found to be overweight (21%) or obese
(6.5%). The percentage of overweight and obese male students was 23%
and 7% compared with female students who were 19% overweight and 6%
obese. There was a positive correlation between fat consumption and BMI
as well as BP in both genders, between economical status and BMI (p=0.05),
and between salty food and BP (p=0.05). There was a nega ve correla on
between consumption of fiber, grains, vegetables, fruits, beans, and BMI as
well as BP in both genders (p=0.05).
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that lifestyle modification is important
especially in young age groups. The preventive interventions should focus
not only on obesity, but also on related diseases. There is a need for
strategies and coordinated efforts to reduce the tendency of overweight
and obesity among college students.
BMC Med. 2011 Jun 20;9:76.
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and Other Chronic Non-
Communicable Diseases in the Central Region, Saudi
Arabia (Riyadh Cohort 2): A Decade of an Epidemic.
Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Alokail MS, Alkharfy KM, Yousef M, Sabico SL,
Biomarkers Research Program, Biochemistry Department, College of
Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
BACKGROUND: Follow-up epidemiologic studies are needed to assess
trends and patterns of disease spread. No follow-up epidemiologic study
has been done in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the current
prevalence of major chronic, noncommunicable diseases, specifically in the
urban region, where modifiable risk factors remain rampant. This study
aims to fill this gap.
METHODS: A total of 9,149 adult Saudis ages seven to eighty years (5,357
males (58.6%) and 3,792 females (41.4%)) were randomly selected from the
Riyadh Cohort Study for inclusion. Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus
(DMT2) and obesity were based on the World Health Organiza on
definitions. Diagnoses of hypertension and coronary artery disease (CAD)
were based on the Seventh Joint National Committee on Prevention,
Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure and American
Heart Association criteria, respectively.
RESULTS: The overall crude prevalence of DMT2 was 23.1% (95%
conﬁdence interval (95% CI) 20.47 to 22.15). The age-adjusted prevalence
of DMT2 was 31.6%. DMT2 prevalence was signiﬁcantly higher in males,
with an overall age-adjusted prevalence of 34.7% (95% CI 32.6 to 35.4),
than in females, who had an overall age-adjusted prevalence of 28.6% (95%
CI 26.7 to 29.3) (P < 0.001). The overall crude prevalence of obesity was
31.1% (95% CI 30.1 to 32.0). The age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was
40.0%. The prevalence of obesity was higher in females, with an overall
prevalence of 36.5% (95% CI 35.1 to 37.83), than in males (25.1% (95% CI
23.7 to 26.3)) (P < 0.001). The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension and
CAD were 32.6% (95% CI 31.7 to 33.6) and 6.9% (95% CI 6.4 to 7.4),
CONCLUSION: Comparisons of our findings with earlier data show that the
prevalence of DMT2, hypertension and CAD in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has
alarmingly worsened. Aggressive promotion of public awareness, continued
screening and early intervention are pivotal to boosting a positive response.
J Family Community Med. 2011 May;18(2):49-53.
Was there a Change in The Body Mass Index of Saudi
Adolescent Girls in Al-Khobar Between 1997 And 2007?
School Health Services, Ministry of Education, Eastern Province, Al-Khobar,
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Special concern is focused on the
nutritional status of adolescent girls in order to avoid future health
problems. The aim of this study was to determine the change in body mass
index (BMI) among adolescent Saudi girls living in Al-Khobar between 1997
girls, 15-19-years-old, living in Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, was analyzed
through two data sets. The ﬁrst data set (n = 400) was collected in 1997 and
the second (n = 321) was collected in 2007. Both data sets used the same
sampling method. Anthropometric measurements were made and the BMI
was used to determine participants' nutritional status. Statistical analysis
girls from 1997 to 2007, but the change was not sta s cally signiﬁcant.
There was a statistically significant change, however, in adolescent girls'
height during the 10-year interval. Using BMI to determine the nutritional
status of the sample, no statistically significant difference was found.
Overweight and obesity remain prevalent in about 30% of the adolescent
girls, and about 3.5% of the girls in both sets were underweight.
CONCLUSIONS: This study concluded that there was no change in BMI
among Saudi adolescent girls living in Al-Khobar during the 10-year span.
Underweight is of low prevalence, and overweight and obesity are the
critical nutritional problems that are faced by this population. Further
research using time span comparisons is important to assess changes in
maladaptive overweight and obesity.
Osteoporos Int. 2011 Feb;22(2):463-75. Epub 2010 Apr 30.
Vitamin D Status In Relation To Obesity, Bone Mineral
Density, Bone Turnover Markers And Vitamin D Receptor
Genotypes In Healthy Saudi Pre- And Postmenopausal
Ardawi MS, Qari MH, Rouzi AA, Maimani AA, Raddadi RM.
Center of Excellence for Osteoporosis Research, King Abdulaziz University,
P.O. Box No. 20724, Jeddah, 21465, Saudi Arabia. email@example.com
The various factors that may contribute to vitamin D deficiency or
insufficiency were examined among healthy Saudi pre- and
postmenopausal women. Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent among
studied Saudi women with obesity, poor sunlight exposure, poor dietary
vitamin D supplementation and age as the main risk factors.
INTRODUCTION: The various factors that may contribute to vitamin D
deficiency or insufficiency in relation to bone health among Saudi women
are not known. The main objectives of the present study were to determine
the factors inﬂuencing vitamin D status in rela on to serum 25-
hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone
turnover markers (BTMs), bone mineral density (BMD), and vitamin D
receptor genotype (VDR) in healthy Saudi pre- and postmenopausal
METHODS: A total number of 1,172 healthy Saudi women living in the
Jeddah area were randomly selected and studied. Anthropometric
parameters, socioeconomic status, sun exposure index together with serum
levels of 25(OH)D, calcitriol, intact PTH, Ca, PO4, Mg, crea nine, albumin,
and biochemical BTMs were measured. BMD was measured by a dual
energy X-ray absorptiometry and VDR genotypes were also determined.
RESULTS: About 80.0% of Saudi women studied exhibited vitamin D
deﬁciency (serum 25(OH)D<50.0 nmol/L) with only 11.8% of all women
were considered with adequate vitamin D status (serum 25(OH)D>75
nmol/L). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was evident in 18.5% and 24.6%
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